Regional Overview Of Latin American Energy
The Latin American region 1 -- comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean -- is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounted to 3.2 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) in 1992, is mostly oil. From 1980 to 1992, the region's net oil exports (crude and products) increased from about 1.3 million barrels per day (b/d) to 2.8 million b/d.
In this chapter, the current situation of primary energy supply and demand for the entire region, the downstream refining sector, oil product consumption, and natural gas use will be discussed in detail. Since the region's commercial energy activities are dominated by hydrocarbons, the last section will elaborate on the important policy issues in this area.
Total primary energy production in 1991 was 13.9 million boe/d, up 3.5 percent from 13.4 million boe/d in 1990. It increased another 1.3 percent to 14 million boe/d in 1992. In 1991, most of the primary energy produced in the region was petroleum (59.4%), while natural gas (16.3%), and other energy (14.4%) -- firewood, cane products, geothermal power, 2 and others -- accounted for the next largest shares. Hydroelectricity (5.5%), coal (4%), and nuclear power (0.4%) comprised the remaining production shares. By comparison, in 1980 oil accounted for 62.6 percent; gas, 16.6 percent; coal, 1.6 percent; hydroelectricity, 3.7 percent; nuclear power, 0.1 percent; and other energy, 15.4 percent of the region's primary energy production (Figure 1. 1). Between 1980 and 1991, production of oil and gas increased at annual rates of 2.2 and 2.5 percent, respectively, and their shares in