Energy in Latin America: Production, Consumption, and Future Growth

By Kang Wu; Cynthia Obadia | Go to book overview

the effects of pollution from sources ranging from motor vehicles to power plants, refineries, and petrochemical plants. 20

Of all the Latin American countries, Mexico, which has suffered some of the region's most serious deterioration of environmental quality, has perhaps been the most aggressive in addressing the problems caused by pollution. In 1991, the country shut down three highly polluting refineries with capacity totalling 164,000 b/d. It also imports MTBE to reduce the lead content and increase the quality of gasoline. Brazil and Venezuela are planning to build their own MTBE capacity as part of their overall refinery expansion programs. In August 1990, the state oil companies of these two countries signed a mutual cooperation agreement to combat oil spills in Venezuelan and Brazilian territorial waters. Another indication that the Latin American governments are making efforts to protect the environment is the projected increase of gas use in a number of countries. As regional trade expands, gas will become the fastest-growing traded energy product in Latin America by 2000.

In short, hydrocarbons policy has a tremendous impact on the development of energy production and consumption. While the issues discussed above are shared by many Latin American countries, each individual country in the region faces a unique set of concerns in its energy sector development, because of the dissimilarity in size, energy resource endowments, and history of energy use. Depending on their policy choices, Latin American countries will face different advantages or constraints in achieving their individual development goals during the 1990s.


NOTES
1
Unless otherwise specified, all of the Caribbean nations and territories, except Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Netherlands Antilles, are included in the definition of Latin America in this book.
2
Geothermal power is installed only in three Latin American countries ( Mexico, Nicaragua, and El Salvador). It accounted for 0.12 percent of the region's total primary energy production in 1991 and is included in the category of other energy.
3
Latin America is a net coal exporter only based on the heat content (in terms of boe). In terms of absolute quantity of tonnage, Latin America imports more coal than it exports. The difference is due to the heat content of Colombian coal (1 tonne is equivalent to roughly 4.7 boe) and Brazil's imported coal (1 tonne is equivalent to approximately 3.9 boe). See the section on coal in this chapter for details.
4
Commercialized dry gas production is only part of total gas output. In the chapters for each country that follow, the gas output refers to total production.
5
Of the 4.4 billion tonnes of coal produced worldwide in 1991, 69 percent or 3 billion tonnes was hard coal and 21 percent or 1.4 billion tonnes was lignite and brown coal. All of the coal produced in Latin America was hard coal. See British Petroleum ( 1992) and OLADE ( 1993).
6
See Rodriguez-Elizarrarás ( 1992).
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.

-12-

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Energy in Latin America: Production, Consumption, and Future Growth
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations xi
  • Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Measurements xvii
  • Foreword xix
  • Preface xxi
  • Chapter 1 - Regional Overview of Latin American Energy 1
  • Notes 12
  • Chapter 2 - Mexico 27
  • Notes 36
  • Chapter 3 - Venezuela 49
  • Notes 57
  • Chapter 4 - Brazil 69
  • Notes 78
  • Chapter 5 - Argentina 91
  • Notes 101
  • Chapter 6 - Colombia 113
  • Notes 120
  • Chapter 7 - Ecuador 133
  • Notes 140
  • Chapter 8 - Trinidad and Tobago 151
  • Notes 159
  • Chapter 9 - Peru 173
  • Notes 180
  • Chapter 10 - Bolivia 193
  • Notes 200
  • Chapter 11 - Chile 211
  • Notes 217
  • Chapter 12 - Future Energy Growth in Latin America 229
  • Notes 240
  • Appendixes 253
  • References 299
  • Index 303
  • About the Author *
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