seeking it. These disagreements help explain the poor case made for financial aid by representatives of the colleges before Congress in 1958 and probably help explain the absence of a Federal scholarship program even as late as 1961. A widespread view that scholarship resources are used at less than maximum effectiveness also contributed to the less than enthusiastic support of a Federal scholarship program. The loan program in the National Defense Education Act had a great appeal to the administration, though I suspect for the wrong reason--namely, that it involved a relatively small strain on the budget. In 1961 and 1962 President Kennedy urged a scholarship program, with a payment to the IHL which accepts the scholarship holder.