OTHER SONATA MOVEMENTS
THE piano sonata, and the orchestral forms that are built on the same lines, consist usually of three or four movements, the latter being the more common number in a large work. The first movement is generally in sonata-allegro form, and somewhat intellectual in character. The second movement is often a slow, expressive affair, lyrical and emotional in character. The third movement is often light and playful, or at least animated in style, -- a minuet in the Haydn-Mozart works, or a scherzo in more recent compositions. The fourth movement, or finale, is usually brilliant. All these movements except the first may be in any one of several different forms. Sometimes it is rather a puzzle to find for the finale material that will make it a worthy conclusion to a work without causing any repetition of form or style.
The first movement itself may be free in style. This is unusual, but examples are readily found, as is shown by Beethoven's so- called "Moonlight Sonata." This work, entitled "Sonata quasi una Fantasia," has a free, fantasia-like movement at the beginning. Its bright allegretto and rushing finale suggest that the opening fantasia corresponds to the slow movement, and that the sonata is really written without any first movement.
The second and third movements may sometimes change places.
In a three-movement work, the scherzo movement is suppressed, the slow movement thus coming between two quick ones.
The slow movement of a sonata, symphony, etc., may be in one of many forms. It may use one of the song-forms, with or without trio; it may be a first or second rondo; it may be a theme, perhaps andante, with variations; it may be a sonata-allegro form again; or it may be a sonata rondo, or sonatina, or sonatina rondo.
Of these different shapes, the song-forms, rondos, and sonata form have been described already. A song-form is found in the slow movement of Mendelssohn's violin concerto. The slow movements