The Book of Musical Knowledge: The History, Technique, and Appreciation of Music, Together with Lives of the Great Composers, for Music-Lovers, Students and Teachers

By Arthur Elson | Go to book overview

XXXVII
THE ORCHESTRAL FORMS

As already intimated, the symphony is an orchestral sonata, usually in four movements. Occasionally these movements are different from those of the sonata, and national dances may be used. Thus Tschaikovsky introduced the brilliant Russian Kamarinskaia, while Dvořák employed the melancholy Dumka and the wild Furiant. Berlioz and Tschaikovsky tried a waltz movement in a symphony; but the waltz is rather too informal for the best effects. Rubinstein "Ocean Symphony" contains seven movements.

The concerto is generally a three-movement orchestral sonata, with the scherzo omitted. Sometimes concerto movements merge into one another with no pause between them. This is true occasionally of the symphony also. Toward the close of the first movement in a concerto, and sometimes in the last movement, occurs what is known as a cadenza. This is an unaccompanied passage for the solo instrument. It is usually brilliant in character, giving the soloist a chance to display his technique. Sometimes the cadenza is written by the composer. More often, however, it is left to the performer. He may sometimes use a cadenza of his own, or one written by anybody, even when the composer has made his own cadenza. A number of cadenzas in great works have been published separately by famous performers. The place for the cadenza is indicated in the score by a hold on a dominant or 6/4 tonic chord. The performer ends the cadenza by a long-sustained trill, on a note that will allow the conductor to make the orchestra enter in proper harmony, -- usually the dominant degree.

Concertos may be written for more than one instrument of the same kind, or even for instruments of several kinds, with orchestra. The best concertos do not resemble instrumental solos with accompaniment, but are really orchestral works with one or more threads of solo music interwoven into their texture. Beethoven, who thought naturally for orchestra, wrote concertos that fulfilled

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The Book of Musical Knowledge: The History, Technique, and Appreciation of Music, Together with Lives of the Great Composers, for Music-Lovers, Students and Teachers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations xi
  • Part I - The Evolution of Music 1
  • Part I the Evolution of Music 2
  • I - Primitive and Savage Music 3
  • II - Greece and Rome 13
  • III - Early Christian Music 23
  • IV - The Minstrel Knights 31
  • V - The Schools of Counterpoint 42
  • VI - The Harmonic Style 58
  • Part II - The Great Composers 67
  • Part II the Great Composers 68
  • VII - Bach 69
  • VIII - Handel 77
  • IX - Gluck 85
  • X - Haydn 91
  • XI - Mozart 98
  • XII - Beethoven 108
  • XIII - Schubert 120
  • XIV - Weber and Romanticism 128
  • XV - Mendelssohn 135
  • XVI - Schumman 143
  • XVII - Chopin 151
  • XVIII - Italian Opera 158
  • XIX - Cherubini and French Opera 170
  • XX - Berlioz and Other Frenchmen 179
  • XXI - Liszt and His Circle 188
  • Part III - Musical Form 307
  • XXXI - Melody and Appreciation 309
  • XXXII - Figures and Phrases 317
  • XXXIII - The Song-Forms 324
  • XXXIV - The Rondos 331
  • XXXV - The Sonata-Allegro Form 336
  • XXXVI - Other Sonata Movements 341
  • XXXVII - The Orchestral Forms 345
  • XXXVIII Dances and Piano Styles - Dances and Piano Styles 351
  • XXXIX - The Vocal Forms 360
  • XL - The Contrapuntal Forms 366
  • Part IV - The Instruments 376
  • XLI - The Piano and Its Predecessors 377
  • XLII - The Organ 384
  • XLIII - The Voice 391
  • XLIV - The Violin 398
  • XLV - Other Bowed Instruments *
  • XLVI - Plucked-String Instruments 413
  • XLVII - Flute and Piccolo 420
  • XLVIII - Oboe and English Horn *
  • XLIX - The Bassoons 433
  • L the Clarinets 438
  • Li Horns, Trumpets, and Cornets 444
  • Lii Trombones and Tubas 450
  • Liii Instruments of Percussion 456
  • Part V - Special Topics 463
  • LIV - Some Famous Pianists 465
  • LV - Some Famous Singers 474
  • LVI - Violinists and Violin Music 483
  • LVII - Orchestration 491
  • LVIII - Conducting 496
  • Lix Acoustics 503
  • LX - How to Read Music 515
  • LXI - Modern Music 538
  • Appendix 569
  • Index 581
  • Index to Supplementary Chapter 606
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