diplomacy concentrated on building support for action along these lines among both other middle powers and the developing countries. A particular emphasis was placed on institution-building. At the administrative level, Canada pushed successfully for the creation of a new international agency within the UN. At the normative level, the Canadian priority was for the development of uniform anti-pollution standards or a universally accepted code of ethics.
These efforts, in turn, formed a component of Canada's wider approach to the Law of the Sea negotiations. Canadian behaviour on this complex and multifaceted issue area epitomized the global and functional orientation of Canadian diplomacy. Avoiding a high-profile campaign on the claims of sovereignty, Canadian diplomacy focused on low-key, detailed, sustained activity over a broad range of issues, extending from pollution control, fishing protection, international straits, and mining in the deep seabed. Using its coalition-building skills (through the Group of Twelve, and the Land-Based Producers' Group), and its reputation as a long-standing supporter of the development of international law in multilateral settings, the Canadian government was able to exert considerable influence over the outcome of these negotiations. 75
It should be added in this context that Canadian officials played a prominent and diverse role in these types of initiatives. For example, Maurice Strong served as secretary-general of the Stockholm conference and was a strong and persistent advocate of the establishment of the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP). Likewise, the Department of External Affairs (DEA) showed a certain adaptability in its willingness to acquire and disseminate technical knowledge in the environment issue area. Not only did the DEA establish a Scientific Relations and Environmental Problems Division and an Environmental Law Section in 1970 (to complement the work of the newly formed Department of the Environment), the department also relied heavily on the Legal Division (headed first by Allan Gotlieb and then by Alan Beesley) within the DEA for specialized advice. Externally, this combination of 'diplomacy, law and science' facilitated on-going forms of technical collaboration between Canada and personnel from other countries. 76
The purpose of this chapter has been to establish a framework for reassessing and, indeed, relocating the nature and role of middle powers.