PRE-SOCRATIC SCHOOL (continued). IDEALIST: PYTHAGORAS -- XENOPHANES -- PARMENIDES -- ZENO. NATURAL REALIST: ANAXAGORAS.
SOCRATIC SCHOOL. SOCRATES.
IN the previous chapter we commenced our inquiry with the assumption that, in the absence of the true inductive method of philosophy which observes, and classifies, and generalizes facts, and thence attains a general principle or law, two only methods were possible to the early speculators who sought an explanation of the universe -- 1st, That of reasoning from physical analogies; or, 2d, That of deduction from rational conceptions, or à priori ideas.
Accordingly we found that one class of speculators fixed their attention solely on the mere phenomena of nature, and endeavored, amid sensible things, to find a single element which, being more subtile, and pliable, and universally diffused, could be regarded as the ground and original of all the rest, and from which, by a vital transformation, or by a mechanical combination and arrangement of parts, all the rest should be evolved. The other class passed beyond the simple phenomena, and considered only the abstract relations of phenomena among themselves, or the relations of phenomena to the necessary and universal ideas of the reason, and supposed that, in these relations, they had found an explanation of the universe. The former was the Ionian or Sensation school; the latter was the Italian or Idealist school.
We have traced the method according to which the Ionian