THE SOCRATIC SCHOOL (continued). PLATO.
THE Platonic Dialectċc the Science of Eternal and Immutable Principles, and the method (ὄργανον) by which these first principles are brought forward into the clear light of consciousness. The student of Plato will have discovered that he makes no distinction between logic and metaphysics. These are closely united in the one science to which he gives the dame of "Dialectic," and which was at once the science of the ideas and laws of the Reason, and of the mental process by which the knowledge of Real Being is attained, and a ground of absolute certainty is found. This science has, in modern times, been called Primordial or Transcendental Logic.
We have seen that Plato taught that the human reason is originally in possession of fundamental and necessary ideas -- the copies of the archetypal ideas which dwell in the eternal Reason; and that these ideas are the primordial laws of thought -- that is, they are the laws under which we conceive of all objective things, and reason concerning all existence. These ideas, he held, are not derived from sensation, neither are they generalizations from experience, but they are inborn and connatural. And, further, he entertained the belief, more, however, as a reasonable hypothesis1 than as a demonstrable truth, that these standard principles were acquired by the soul____________________