Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior the Hixon Symposium

By Lloyd A. Jeffress; California Institute of Technology Hixon Fund | Go to book overview
with a well-defined emission band at about 620 millimicrons. Subsequently I was able to isolate various porphyrins from root nodule material (47, 48). Figure 13 represents a photomicrograph of a section through a root nodule of Phaseolus vulgaris (var. Red Kidney bean). In unstained frozen sections, red fluorescence and a porphyrin fluorescence spectrum can be seen only in the cytoplasm of the large cells containing Rhizobium (Figure 14). There is further evidence that the leghemoglobin is present in the cytoplasm of the same cells. Porphyrins, hemoglobin, and bacteria, therefore, have the same distribution in the nodule cells. The simultaneous occurrence of hemoglobin and porphyrins in the root nodules of leguminous plants is of fundamental interest in view of the fact that these substances occur here in a system in which living cells are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. It is hoped that further research on the porphyrins in the root nodules will throw new light on the physiological significance of porpbyrins in general.In closing, I should like to refer to a statement made by A. J. Clark in discussing the principles and methods of a quantitative pharmacology (11). Speaking of the complexity of living cells he expressed the view "that, if a reaction between a drug and a cell appears to follow simpler laws than those applicable to relatively simple colloidal systems, this apparent simplicity is an accident. . . ." I feel tempted to voice the opinion that for a long time to come -- and by "a long time" I do not mean, like Dr. von Neumann, four or five years, but forty or fifty years or even centuries -- the laws of psychology will not even be as simple as those applicable to relatively simple colloidal systems. If "laws" of such simplicity will be found in the near future they will not be psychological laws, but carefully contrived "accidents" attained by ignoring relevant facts.
REFERENCES
1. Allen, W. F. Effect of ablating the frontal lobes, hippocampi, and occipitoparicto-temporal (excepting pyriform areas) lobes on positive and negative olfactory conditioned reflexes. Amer. J. Physiol., 1940, 128, 754-771.
2. Allen, W. F. Effect of ablating the pyriforin-amygdaloid areas and hippocampi on positive and negative olfactory conditioned reflexes and on conditioned olfactory differentiation. Amer. J. Physiol., 1941, 132, 81-92.
3. Allen, W. F. Degeneration in the dog's maminillary body and Ammon's horn following transection of the fornix. J. Comp. Neurol., 1944, 80, 283-291.
4. Allen, W. F. Fiber degeneration in Ammon's horn resulting from extirpations of the piriform and other cortical areas and from transection of the horn at various levels. J. Comp. Neurol., 1948, 88, 425-438.
5. Bard, P., and Mounteastle, V. B. Some forebrain mechanisms involved

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