The current population in Angola is estimated at 12.7 million, producing an average population density of 10.2 per square kilometer. Population density varies from 1,012.9 per square kilometer in the province of Luanda to 0.7 per square kilometer in the southwestern province of Cuando Cubango. The age distribution in Angola is typical of a developing country, with nearly 50 percent of the population younger than fifteen years old and 12 percent older than forty- five. The sex distribution shows important regional differences, with a large female surplus in most rural areas and a concomitantly large male surplus in most urban areas. The urban population has increased dramatically, rising from 15 percent in 1975 to an estimated 50 percent in 1995. Of the total population, 2.7 million people, or 22 percent, live in the capital, Luanda.3
The three main ethnic groups in the country are the Ovimbundu, estimated at 37 percent of the population; the Mbundu, estimated at 25 percent; and the Bakongo, estimated at 15 percent. Smaller ethnic groups include the Lunda- Chokwe, Nganguela, Owambo, Nyaneka-Humbe, and Herero.4 However, identities other than ethnicity, such as gender, the urban-rural divide, and economic position, have been acquiring increasing significance in Angolan society.