Angola: Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction

By Inge Tvedten | Go to book overview

The current population in Angola is estimated at 12.7 million, producing an average population density of 10.2 per square kilometer. Population density varies from 1,012.9 per square kilometer in the province of Luanda to 0.7 per square kilometer in the southwestern province of Cuando Cubango. The age distribution in Angola is typical of a developing country, with nearly 50 percent of the population younger than fifteen years old and 12 percent older than forty- five. The sex distribution shows important regional differences, with a large female surplus in most rural areas and a concomitantly large male surplus in most urban areas. The urban population has increased dramatically, rising from 15 percent in 1975 to an estimated 50 percent in 1995. Of the total population, 2.7 million people, or 22 percent, live in the capital, Luanda.3

The three main ethnic groups in the country are the Ovimbundu, estimated at 37 percent of the population; the Mbundu, estimated at 25 percent; and the Bakongo, estimated at 15 percent. Smaller ethnic groups include the Lunda- Chokwe, Nganguela, Owambo, Nyaneka-Humbe, and Herero.4 However, identities other than ethnicity, such as gender, the urban-rural divide, and economic position, have been acquiring increasing significance in Angolan society.


Notes
1.
There is no standard spelling policy for Angolan place-names. I will follow the style used by contemporary Angolan authorities, as in the Atlas Geográfico (Républica Popular de Angola 1982a).
2.
The province of Zaire is distinguished from Angola's neighboring country Zaïre both by spelling and pronunciation.
3.
If not otherwise stated, figures on population and population distribution are based on extrapolations from the electoral census of 1992 (UNDP 1995a). The last proper census was done in 1970.
4.
The last census distinguishing ethnic affiliation was done in 1960. The figures are adjusted from these (Collelo 1989:64-80).

-7-

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Angola: Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Nations of the Modern World: Africa iii
  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Geographical Setting 3
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Historical Background 8
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Political Ideol06y and Practice 35
  • Notes 67
  • 4 - Economic Potential and Performance 70
  • Notes 99
  • 5 - Socioeconomic Conditions and Cultural Traits 101
  • Notes 137
  • 6 - Angola's Future 139
  • Selected Bibliography 145
  • About the Book and Author 153
  • Index 154
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