Technology and Society
Since the Stone Age, civilizations have been characterized by the type of technology they use, and it has always played a role in the transformation of urban form. It is a dynamic force of change in urban life because its advances impose alterations in city structure and systems ( Mumford 1961; Benevolo 1971; Morris 1972). Improvements in basic infrastructure, such as the introduction of sewage systems and water supply networks in Greco-Roman cities, altered building arrangements and urban patterns, and therefore, urban environment.
In the industrial city, the generation of electrical power brought about major changes. The new form of energy created new machinery and manufacturing techniques for mass production in large factories. It extended daytime activities past sunset. It made possible new modes of transportation -- the tramway, which dispersed social activities into wider areas and enlarged the pool of labor around larger units of industrial production. 1 Electricity enabled the invention of the elevator and the telephone. The elevator, with the use of new materials such as steel and concrete, reshaped the structure of urban components and altered city skyline. Highrise buildings allowed concentrations of activities in the city center, while telephone networks