and strongly tie city components and activities, simply enough, to
the customized individual.
Thus, in each of the three perspectives, space has a central
position due to the advancement of information technologies.
First, it becomes the focus of the visual image of the city in which
observers perceive the built environment in nodal hierarchical
patterns built around spaces. Second, it becomes the place for
concentrated activities and services in delocalized, multinodal
structures, nesting mixed uses, information services, new places
of production, and teleworking centers in which leisure and work
are mingled. Third, it serves as a social gathering place where
diffusion of innovations and an exchange of ideas, behavior, and
culture are accommodated. The versatile role and associated
functions of spaces make them essential to identify levels of distributed structures. It becomes more difficult to identify the real
location unless multilevel structures are apparent with high rates
Since the beginning of systematic study of society, social scientists
have been interested in the quest for social change. However, they have
studied social transformation processes without much notice of the spatial
configuration of that change.
Image is based on knowledge of the environment. Messages about
this environment consist of information, which are structured experience
which endows them with meaning to produce changes in the image
Boulding 1969). The environment, then, is a language of communication, with a syntactic and semantic structure.
For a complete account of changes in city patterns, see Morris
( 1972). Use of the gridiron system is not exclusive for the post-automobile
city. Greek and Roman cities were dominated by the "mesh" of paths.
Christaller's ( 1966) central place theory and that of Lüsch ( 1954)
claimed that services are distributed according to hierarchical and spatial
pattern. Earlier, Thönen ( 1966) provided the land rent model, in which
land rent differentials over space are explained solely by access to consumers, or in other words, transport cost savings.
These theories are static, although restorative changes occur after
every shift in resources or when obstacles to free market play are imposed