NATIONALIZING EDUCATIONAL CONTROL

With the unifying of the nation has come some centralizing of education. The great faith of Americans in education has tended to harmonize educational ideals and practices for the whole country. The inevitable diffusion of ideas would alone tend in this direction. All these processes have gone on more or less continuously and only occasionally suspected. But the tendency today is to reduce cost and improve instruction by consolidation of school districts and centralization of direction.

This educational practice is, however, by no means general. In hundreds of towns and cities the school boards still serve as training schools for local politicians. In conservative rural communities in 1933 there were 127,000 district boards with 423,974 school trustees who legislated and acted as executives on educational affairs. This democratic system holds out in the farming states. In Illinois there isn't even a state board to supervise. Time, Jan. 4, 1943, reports "The toughest obstacle to school consolidation in Illinois is its archaic patchwork of 11,957 autonomous boards of education (there is no state board), which are a minor but profitable branch of politics. Today their schools, even though they have only three pupils, get state aid based on a minimum of 18. . . . One thousand Illinois schools have closed recently because poorly paid teachers are taking war jobs. Most of the shut-downs are one-room rural schools --the 9,703 one-room schools of Illinois outnumber any other state."

This faith in education was not general among the thirteen colonies. The theological hierarchy in Massachusetts in 1636, as soon as shelter and food had been provided, established a 'college' to provide an educated ministry to succeed them. But in Virginia, Governor Berkeley forty years later 'thanked God' there were "no free schools or printing, and I hope we shall not have them these hundred years, for learning has brought disobedience and heresy . . . and printing has divulged them".

Whether there should be school or no school and what should be taught and how, continued to vary in the colonies. The New York Dutch, the Germans and Moravians of Pennsylvania, the Swedes and English Catholics of Maryland, each brought with them their own educational practices and institutions, which flourished for a time. But today

-79-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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