'REFORMING' STATIC EDUCATION

In England and America as well, this war like the last has brought an awareness of the shortcomings of education. Our faith in education has been shaken. Such awakenings, occurring periodically, have usually been followed by a spasmodic effort at reform and then a final settling back into the old form. Earnest, enthusiastic efforts by clear-eyed idealists to remake education to their heart's desire, for the benefit of the next generation, have repeatedly come to naught. But as they act as safety valves they are permitted to blow off steam.

How this comes about has only recently become apparent as we have been able to obtain a broader view of education as a social process. For this we owe much to the comparative view that has been brought us by the anthropologists. Their study of the social scene among many peoples has given a new trend and zest to sociology. As we understand education as an element of the culture by which youth is conditioned to carry on, as we realize that education cannot be changed except as we change society, the social structure, our way of life,--we may be able more effectively to re-form our educational practices.

"Before we can suggest reforms of our education the dominant social forces of our time must be considered. Educational change cannot occur in isolation from society: it must be directed towards certain social ends and designed to bring education into line with a changing social environment. . . . But in practice, educational methods may become unrelated to the social background and this has certainly happened in our contemporary civilisation," declare Humby and James in "Science and Education" ( Camb., 1942), who quote from Leach's "Educational Charters":

"In nothing, not even in Religion, has the innate conservatism of the human race been more marked than in education. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the subjects and the methods of education remained the same from the days of Quintilian to the days of Arnold, from the first century to the mid-nineteenth century of the Christian era."

All through that period language was the chief subject of instruction. To the complicated grammar of obsolete tongues were ascribed the virtues of character building. (1) Knowledge of the world about was little

-168-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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