fight, consequently, until it is made clear to them by propaganda that fighting is essential to present and future gratification."

As it is the function of society to condition the young to carry on the purposes that seem to those in control important to their culture, so as war approaches, the conditioning of youth for war is necessarily intensified. And they must be made to feel a consciousness of guilt, a sense of duty. "So low is grandeur to the dust, so nigh is God to man, when duty whispers low, 'Thou must', the youth replies, 'I can'." (6)


NOTES
(1)
"We . . . feed all of the young into the same educational mill. . . . But this sifting process does not necessarily leave us at the end with the most constructive and brilliant minds, but only with those which happen to be capable of assimilating the largest quantities of the sort of knowledge we pour into them. . . . We pretend that our children discontinue their education at varying periods because they reach the point of comfortable satiety at different ages. It seems probable, however, that the majority stop because they are defeated and unhappy and are not only incapable of further profit, but have derived very little from the whole process, and perhaps even a good deal of loss." ( Earnest Hooton, "Apes, Men and Morons", Putnam, 1937)
(2)
In 1939, February 27, Pres. Edmund E. Day of Cornell in an address before the N.E.A. at Cleveland said, "Evidences accumulate that the adult population will increasingly restrict the opportunities for youthful employment in industry. The changing age composition of the American population is almost certain to accentuate all this. The number of young people between 16 and 20 years of age will reach its maximum of about 12½ million in the early 1940's", and within the next 12 years probably drop about 2,000,000.

The number of unemployed youth will continue to increase. According to the 1930 census, of a total of 123,000,000 people, 48,300,000 were under 19 years of age, 6,600,000 over 65. "The young people outnumbered the old more than seven to one." By 1960 it was estimated that of a total population of 140,000,000 people, 37,000,000 will be under 19 and 15,000,000 over 65. The young will outnumber the old by only 2½ to 1. "In other words, over the next twenty years, the number of children and young people is expected to decline about 11,300,000 and the number of old people to increase about 8,400,000."

(3)
In "Culture, Society, Impulse, and Socialization", American journal of Sociology, July, 1939, John Dollard tells us, "Growing up may therefore be seen as involving a series of frustrating as well as satisfying experiences; the least that can be said is that conflict in the individual life is inevitable and that socialization is always a frustrating experience. . . ."

But, as he makes clear, this "growing up is not a smooth automatic process of assimilating the folkways and mores; on the contrary, society has to deal with a

-285-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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