that America is too rich to win this war . . . then all our speculations as to wealth and what to do with it will be waste paper".

" America is soft", President Roosevelt declared in 1940 after observing the National Guard maneuvers. Dr. C. Ward Crampton a little later wrote, "We are as far behind in physical fitness as in tanks and airplanes. United States Army Examination rejections" were, in January, 1941, "90% for aviation". (6)

But conditions rapidly improved. Even as early as July 13, 1941, Cabell Phillips could report in the N. Y. Times, "Our army of 1941 reveals us as a sturdier, healthier and more enlightened people than we were a quarter of a century ago. Our army of 1941 is the best educated in the world."

A high state of morale may well be attributed to the early training and conditioning of youth. The educational systems in Japan and Germany, it is well known, aim at and succeed in building high morale. In reviewing the voluminous literature in praise of our own school system we find little that would claim that our teaching has built a satisfactory morale. We have taken too much for granted.

"Good morale is perhaps our greatest need today", Head Master Fuess of Phillips Andover Academy declared at Tufts, Feb. 25, 1942, speaking on "This Matter of National Morale". "Our cherished belief that Americans are invariably invincible and irresistible will not bear examination, as is evidenced by certain battles in our history, including Bladensburg and Bull Run."

Goodwin Watson declares it is "almost incredible that we have spent so much time and energy preparing teachers with subject matter and knowledge about I.Q.'s and correlations, but so little on study of group morale". (7)

Courage prolonged becomes morale. A shot of adrenalin may give us courage but the effect of it soon fades. An addition of Vitamin Bi, thiamin, to our diet will give us continuous courage, and then we may have morale. To build and maintain morale we must build and maintain health. The body must be properly nourished. A people deprived of necessary vitamins become subservient, incapable of resistance.


NOTES
(1)
In his "Berlin Diary" ( Knopf, 1941), Shirer writes further, "The great gulf between officers and men is gone in this war. There is a sort of equalitarian-

-302-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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