CONTROL--BY WHOM AND FOR WHAT?

The high ideals and exalted objectives on which educators hold forth, we have seen, are seldom attained nor do they have much effect on educational practice. The results produced by our educational machinery, moreover, have not proved wholly satisfactory. Is this futility actual or apparent? Is there no design, no purpose, no direction?

Is it possible, on the other hand, that there is an underlying control which does attain results which are not paraded but which have been determined by those behind the scenes? This does not imply conspiracy. It merely inquires into the ultimate nature of our social control, and we are only beginning to learn a little about that by the comparative study of other societies through the work of anthropologists. (1)

Thurman Arnold in his "Symbols of Government" ( Yale, 1935), remarks that idealists and reformers "understand too little the manipulation of people. . . . Their constant and futile cry is reiterated through the ages: 'Let us educate the people so that they can understand and appreciate us.' It never occurs to them to stop preaching and to begin observing. . . . They constantly adopt the role of missionaries to the heathen, instead of playing the part of anthropologists in a society so filled with complicated and contradictory taboos as to make the average savage seem comparatively wanting in superstition. When they do recognize a taboo, they condemn it, instead of realizing that of such is the stuff which binds society together and makes it orderly and comfortable in its spirit. And when they find that their reforms do not reform . . . they end with a discouraged skepticism."

One must go to other countries to discover just how the educational process is controlled. In Japan we can readily see that the whole educational system has been used for the last seventy years to emphasize and indoctrinate the cult of the Sun Goddess and the ritual of Shinto. The children have been made a reserve line of defense and the educational machinery used to perpetuate the power of those who hold control. We can see, too, how in Russia, Italy, and Germany the dictators have used the educational machinery to build their own prestige.

At home it is more difficult to detect such control. Some things we see

-361-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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