BUILDING IDEOLOGIES

When a boy is suspected of raiding the preserve closet, the damning evidence of jam on his face may bring from him explanations and excuses. Groups, too, made conscious of some act which has attracted attention, embarrassedly attempt explanation. Those who guide political events may find it necessary to screen their activities or, if discovered, to excuse them when their purposes could not be openly declared.

A government or the group acting in its name must sometimes act quickly to surprise and overcome opposition. The coup accomplished may be justified by quoting precedents, or rights, divine, ethical, or legal, or by some explanation, excuse or ideology. Such may take the form of recondite theories. (1)

In his "Collective Behavior" ( McGraw-Hill, 1938) Richard T. LaPiere of Stanford University makes clear that such "explanations" are "socially provided" and may have traditional or religious sanction. They justify the pattern of behavior as 'right' or 'normal'. But each people have their own pattern of behavior, for which they have an ideology, which is 'right' for them. But if 'right' only for the group, then there is no absolute 'right' for the race.

The term 'ideology' was originally used by the eighteenth century philosopher Condillac with reference to mental patterns supposed to be derived directly from sensations. Ideas, LaPiere explains, "are of social derivation and . . . may have no relationship to nonsocial reality. . . . The idea that spinach is a good food is an ideological part of social reality. It may or may not be valid in terms of nonsocial reality. . . . All ideas concerning the nature of reality which are derived from social reality but which are not verified in terms of nonsocial reality are herein designated as ideologies. . . .

"The distinction between the ideologies and the actual functions of social interactions is most clearly evident in those sorts of collective behavior ordinarily described as involving ulterior motives. . . . To accept the ideologies of social interaction as evidence of the function of that interaction would, therefore, be much like taking the politician's professions as gospel truth. On the latter basis, political history would

-447-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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