YEARNING FOR SECURITY

Changing conditions, when we are unaware of trends and have lost our sense of directions, seem dangerous and make us long for security. Survival, the first function of the individual or species, demands a degree of security. When conditions threaten, fear arises and we long for peace, protection at whatever price. This is the inevitable reaction of any organism in the effort to survive.

Avoiding new conditions, evading change,--for adjustment is painful (cf p 135 ff),--the individual or group may temporarily escape from the necessity of readjustment. For such the future holds nothing. Their thoughts, their codes, their morality, their institutions become moribund or extinct with them.

A continuance of unchanging conditions results in a sodden, static state which has proved fatal to human civilizations as Toynbee explains. "Caste and specialization, and the fatally perfect adaptation of the society to its particular environment which these two phenomena bring about between them, are just as characteristic of the Utopian and the Insect World as they are of the four actual human societies just examined [Spartan, Osmanli, Eskimo, Nomadic], which have suffered arrest. And these resemblances are signficant, since the insect societies and the Utopias are both patently in a state of arrested development likewise." ( "Study of History", III, Oxford, 1934)

Hope for security man long placed in the spirit of some ancestor or great chief, later in the shaman or maker of magic. To bolster his hopes, to strengthen his courage, man came to rely on the supernatural and, to support him and aid him against his enemies, created thousands of gods. Around them priesthoods and institutions have lasted so long as to seem to their votaries eternal.

Divine right to sovereignty was bestowed on kings by those who claimed supernatural authority. The Reformation gave the people sovereignty by divine right, with the blessing of their ministry. It was to the state that they came to look for ultimate security.

At a time when the American people were on the verge of civil war, their foreboding and yearning for the security of the nation was thus

-459-

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War and Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • By Porter Sargent 4
  • Title Page 5
  • Table of Contents 9
  • This Title 15
  • Notes 17
  • This Book 19
  • Notes 23
  • Power Increase 25
  • Notes 27
  • Technological Advance 29
  • Notes 33
  • Economic Consequences 37
  • Notes 45
  • Political Effects 49
  • Notes 51
  • Social Repercussions 53
  • Notes 60
  • Centralizing Tendencms 65
  • Notes 68
  • Unifying the Nation 71
  • Notes 75
  • Nationalizing Educational Control 79
  • Notes 85
  • War Predicted by the Wise 89
  • Notes 98
  • Confused Educators 105
  • Notes 112
  • Retreat to the Past 119
  • Notes 128
  • Adjustnmnt is Painful 135
  • Notes 141
  • Unity Versus Heresy 145
  • Notes 152
  • Our Educational Leadership 161
  • Notes 166
  • 'Reforming' Static Education 168
  • Notes 171
  • Maintaining the Social System 173
  • Notes 182
  • Hopes of Reconsiruction 189
  • Notes 197
  • The Wife of the State 207
  • Notes 213
  • Ideals Without Vision 219
  • Notes 224
  • We Teach What's Left 229
  • Nons 240
  • Piecemeal Additions 245
  • Notes 249
  • Sterile Scholarship 251
  • Notes 261
  • Worship of Facts 265
  • Notes 270
  • Seedbeds for Propaganda 272
  • Notes 276
  • Education for Frustration 279
  • Notes 285
  • Youth the Scapegoat 287
  • Notes 295
  • Morale and Education 298
  • Notes 302
  • Health and Morale 305
  • Notes 310
  • Vitamins Will Win 313
  • Notes 317
  • War and the Children 319
  • Notes 324
  • Manufacturing Criminals 327
  • Notes 333
  • Has Education Improved Our Intellect? 337
  • Notes 344
  • Failure of the Intellect in Wartime 351
  • Notes 359
  • Control--By Whom and for What? 361
  • Notes 369
  • How Universities Are Controlled 371
  • Notes 378
  • How Foundations Influence 387
  • Notes 402
  • How Governments Perpetuate Themselves 411
  • Notes 415
  • Guiding Public Opinion 419
  • Notes 424
  • Notes 437
  • Distorting History 443
  • Building Ideologies 447
  • Changing Directions 451
  • Getting Down to Earth 455
  • Yearning for Security 459
  • Going Head First 463
  • Turning Eyes Forward 467
  • Getting Understanding 473
  • Index 479
  • Publishers Books Quoted Or Reviewed 505
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