Some interpreters of Hobbes regard the Laws of Nature as moral rules rather than
(as we suggest) prudential rules that it is in anyone's interest to support. We find such
alternative interpretations unsatisfactory for ultimately some explanation must be given of
why Hobbesian egoists would obey moral rules when it was not in their self-interest to do so.
Usually, the reason given is fear of God's wrath. But that is just to introduce prudential
considerations by the back door. For relevant essays and a helpful bibliography, see
, ed., Hobbes's Leviathan: Interpretation and Criticism ( Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969).
Hobbes, Leviathan, pp. 335-36.
Ibid., p. 340. Although Hobbes speaks of conferring all power on the sovereign, he
does suggest that the individual always retains a right (or perhaps more accurately a power or
ability) to attempt to preserve his own life.
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, 1690, chap. 9, sect. 13 (9, 13). This work is
available in a number of editions, including that edited by
Thomas P. Peardon ( Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952), from which all quotations here are taken. Another useful edition is
Peter Laslett, ed., John Locke's Two Treatises of Government ( New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1960).
Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism, p. 14.
We owe this line of objection to
Jeffrey H. Reiman, In Defense of Political Philosophy
( New York: Harper & Row, 1972), p. 35, although Reiman makes different use of it than we
Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism, p.9.
Reiman, In Defense of Political Philosophy, pp. 29, 31.
Harry G. Frankfurt, "The Anarchism of Robert Paul Wolff," Political Theory 1, no. 4
( 1974): 411.
David Lewis, Convention ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), p.43.
Baumrin Bernard, ed. Hobbes's Leviathan: Interpretation and Criticism. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1969.
Benn S. I. and
Peters R. S. The Principles of Political Thought: Social Foundations of the
Democratic State. New York: The Free Press, 1965. Chapters 11-14.
Carter April. The Political Theory of Anarchism. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
Fishkin James S. Tyranny and Legitimacy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.
Friedrich C. J., ed. Nomos I--Authority. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958. A
collection of articles by leading scholars.
Hart H. L. A. The Concept of Law. London: Oxford University Press, 1961. Chapters II, IV,
Hobbes Thomas. Leviathan. 1651. (Available in a variety of editions.)
Pennock J. Roland and
Chapman John W., eds. Nomos XIX--Anarchism. New York: New
York University Press, 1978. A collection of articles by leading scholars.
Reiman Jeffrey H. In Defense of Political Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Taylor Richard. Freedom, Anarchy and the Law. 2nd ed. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982.
Chapters VII, VIII, XI, XII, and XIII.
Wolff Robert Paul. In Defense of Anarchism. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
-----. The Poverty of Liberalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1968. Chapter Two, "Loyalty."