15
RECREATION AND PARKS

Recreation is the stimulus which produces joyful living for the normal individual, and a new chance for the physically subnormal. Joyful living is dependent on a healthy body, and one of the chief objects of recreation is to build physically, to profit mentally and spiritually; it is what the Germans try to express in their phrase Kraft Durch Freude (strength through happiness). Recreation stimulates or re-creates that physical condition which enables the body to combat disease. It enables the body-machine to wear out gracefully, rather than to rust or rot out through physical inactivity or germ attack. The relation between physical recreation and mental reactions is evident in playground attendance figures before and during the depression. St. Louis started in 1907 with about 472,000 and by 1931 reached the peak of approximately 2,400,000. From this point, the attendance figures started to decline, reaching 926,794 in 1934.1 Similar figures from other cities bear out this psychological association between recreation and mental distress.


LEISURE AND CITY LIVING

Cities offer all kinds of recreational opportunities, but many of them are available only for the well-to-do unless supplied without charge by the city government. Books, golf, and music are examples. Another peculiarity of the urban environment is its large assortment of harmful opportunities for the use of leisure, a condition which makes recreational guidance more necessary than in rural districts. For many years prior to 1934, most of the major crimes in cities were committed by the eighteen- to nineteen-year-old-group.

____________________
1
Annual Report, Division of Parks and Recreation, St. Louis, Mo., 1937, p. 31. Subsequent approximate figures: 1935--1,400,000; 1936--1,000,000; 1937--891,000.

-355-

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City Management
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xiii
  • Illustrations xix
  • 1 - The Changing City 1
  • 2 - Administrative Principles 22
  • 3 - The Civil Service 49
  • 4 - Personnel Management 70
  • 5 - Revenues and Taxation 95
  • 6 - Finance and Accounting 124
  • 7 - Expenditures and Debts 151
  • Conclusions 174
  • 8 - State Financial Supervision 176
  • Conclusions 194
  • 9 - Centralized Purchasing 199
  • 10 - Planning 226
  • 11 - Zoning 249
  • 12 - Slums and Housing 275
  • 13 - The Law Department 300
  • 14 - Public Health 319
  • 15 - Recreation and Parks 355
  • Conclusions 378
  • 16 - Public Welfare 383
  • 17 - Police Administration 412
  • 18 - Traffic. 449
  • 19 - Fire 477
  • 20 - Public Works 509
  • 21 - Streets 539
  • 22 - Public Utilities 566
  • 23 - Wastes 593
  • Conclusions 620
  • 24- Water 623
  • Conclusions 646
  • 25 - Courts 649
  • Conclusions 669
  • 26 - Education 673
  • 27 - Nominations and Elections 696
  • 28 - New Horizons 716
  • Index 747
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