Psychology of the Child and the Adolescent

By Robert I. Watson; Henry Clay Lindgren | Go to book overview

when placed in a box. Evidently something happens during their infancy that extinguishes their normal fighting tendencies. That "something" is not the difference in mouse and rat milk, for mouse pups raised by rat "aunts" whose nipples had been surgically removed were also likely to refrain from fighting, even when they had been raised with other mouse "siblings."

This effect apparently applies only to inbred laboratory mice and does not obtain with Swiss albino mice, whose fighting tendencies are undiminished by experience with rat foster mothers or aunts. Another mouse tendency, however, was affected by foster care. Mice show a great deal more open-field activity, such as running around and exploring, than do laboratory rats. When the amount of open-field activity was taken as a dependent variable, both inbred and Swiss albino mice who had been reared by rat mothers or aunts showed less activity. The lower activity level was also positively correlated with lower levels of corticosterone in the blood plasma of the experimental animals. Corticosterone is released by the cortex of the adrenal gland its level in the blood may be taken as an index of emotional reactivity. In other words, both the overt behavior and the blood chemistry of the experimental animals were evidently modified by their experience as pups.

Denenberg confessed that he was surprised at the results he had obtained in his research and commented:

Even though I am a firm believer in motherhood, I must admit that when we started this set of experiments I did not expect to find that the mother's behavior during the nursing period would have such a powerful effect upon so many different biobehavioral systems of the animal. Clearly, if these results have any degree of generality to other mammals, the subtle and not so subtle behavior patterns of the mother during the early stages of the neonate's development have very profound and far- reaching effects.


summary

Infants are influenced by caregivers (mothers, fathers, siblings, parent substitutes) and influence them in return. Although fathers have significant affects on infant development, most research deals with the infant's interaction with his mother. Much of what caregivers provide for infants can be classified as stimulation. Research with animals indicates that early stimulation has generally positive effects on infant development and can promote significant growth of the cerebral cortex--the "thinking area" of the brain. The theory that such stimulation must occur during a critical period in development is not well supported, however, for research suggests that deficiencies resulting from early understimulation can be made up later.

-253-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychology of the Child and the Adolescent
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 626

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.