CHAPTER III. CHRISTIAN CHURCHES.

The large number of churches in Rome. -- The six classes of the earliest of these. -- I. Private oratories. -- The houses of Pudens and Prisca. -- The evolution of the church from the private house. -- II. Scholæ. -- The memorial services and banquets of the pagans. -- Two extant specimens of early Christian scholæ. -- That in the Cemetery of Callixtus. -- III. Oratories and churches built over the tombs of martyrs and confessors. -- How they came to be built. -- These the originals of the greatest sanctuaries of modern Rome. -- S. Peter's. -- The origin of the church. -- The question of S. Peter's residence and execution in Rome. -- The place of his execution and burial. -- The remarkable discovery of graves under the baldacchino of Urban VIII. The basilica erected by Constantine. -- Some of its monuments. -- The chair and statue of S. Peter. -- The destruction of the old basilica and the building of the new. -- The vast dimensions of the latter. -- Is S. Peter's body really still under the church? -- The basilica of S. Paul's outside the walls. -- The obstacles to its construction. -- The fortified settlement of Johannipolis which grew up around it. -- The grave of S. Paul. -- IV. Houses of confessors and martyrs. -- The discoveries of padre Germano on the Cælian. -- The house of the martyrs John and Paul. -- V. Pagan monuments converted into churches. -- Every pagan building capable of holding a congregation was thus transformed at one time or another. -- Examples of these in and near the Coliseum. -- VI. Memorials of historical events. -- The chapel erected to commemorate the victory of Constantine over Maxentius. -- That of Santa Croce a Monte Mario.

ROME, according to an old saying, contains as many churches as there are days in the year. This statement is too modest; the "great catalogue" published by cardinal

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