CHAPTER XII

THE ANALOGIES OF EXPERIENCE

EACH of the three categories of relation, i. e. those of substance and accident, of cause and effect, and of interaction between agent and patient involves, according to Kant, a special principle, and these special principles he calls 'analogies of experience'. They are stated thus:1 (1) In all changes of phenomena the substance is permanent, and its quantity in nature is neither increased nor diminished. (2) All changes take place according to the law of the connexion of cause and effect. (3) All substances, so far as they can be perceived in space as coexistent, are in complete interaction. The justification of the term analogy of experience is as follows. In mathematics an analogy is a formula which asserts the equality of two quantitative relations, and is such that, if three of the terms are given, we can discover the fourth, e.g. if we know that a:b=c:d, and that a=2, b=4, c=6 we can discover that d=12. But in philosophy an analogy is the assertion of the equality of two qualitative relations and is such that, if three of the terms are given, we can discover, not the fourth, but only the relation of the third to the fourth, though at the same time we are furnished with a clue whereby to search for the fourth in experience. In this philosophical sense, the principles involved in the categories of relation are analogies. For instance, the principles of causality can be stated in the form 'Any known event X is to

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The formulation of them in the first edition is slightly different.

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