CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary Structure and Function

By A. V. S. De Reuck; Maeve O'Connor | Go to book overview

TECHNIQUES USED IN THE STUDY OF LUNG PATHOLOGY: THE ANATOMY OF EMPHYSEMA

J. GOUGH and J. G. LEOPOLD Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff


Gross anatomy

AT a Ciba Foundation Guest Symposium ( 1959) it was concluded that emphysema can be diagnosed and classified consistently only on preparations made from lungs distended and fixed before they are cut. The simplest technique is intrabronchial infusion of fixative. After such fixation we have found papermounted sections 400 μ thick very satisfactory for the gross appearances ( Gough and Wentworth, 1960). Some investigators (e.g. Tobin, 1952; Oderr, 1958) expand the lungs with air and allow them to dry. Others, including Blumenthal and Boren ( 1959) and Pratt ( 1959), have used formalin vapour and then allowed the lung to dry. Judging by the illustrations in a publication by Pratt, Haque and Klugh ( 1961) one disadvantage of the method is that photographs of the preparations do not make satisfactory illustrations. Jones ( 1960) found fume fixative with alcohol and formalin unreliable and could not recommend it for the study and diagnosis of lungs containing destructive and fibrotic disease because such changes would tend to inhibit diffusion of the fixative. Cureton and Trapnel ( 1961) had success with formalin gas fixation in correlating radiological and pathological changes, but they found that fixation was incomplete in seven of their 42 cases. Distended dry specimens of lungs can provide valuable information and this was the method used by Laennec ( 1826), but histology of the dried specimens even when formalin vapour is used is evidently not always satisfactory.

-280-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary Structure and Function
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 403

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.