Modern Classical Philosophers: Selections Illustrating Modern Philosophy from Bruno to Bergson

By Benjamin Rand | Go to book overview

GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNITZ (1646-1716)

THE MONADOLOGY
Translated from the French* by FREDERIC HENRY HEDGE
1. THE Monad, of which we shall here speak, is merely a simple substance entering into those which are compound; simple, that is to say, without parts.
2. And there must be simple substances, since there are compounds; for the compound is only a collection or aggregation of simple things.
3. Where there are no parts, neither extension nor figure, nor divisibility is possible; and these Monads are the veritable atoms of nature and, in a word, the elements of things.
4. There is thus no danger of dissolution, and there is no conceivable way in which a simple substance can perish naturally.
5. For the same reason, there is no way in which a simple substance can begin naturally, since it could not be formed by composition.
6. Therefore we may say that the Monads can neither begin nor end in any other way than all at once; that is to say, they cannot begin except by creation, nor end except by annihilation; whereas that which is compounded, begins and ends by parts.
7. There is also no intelligible way in which a Monad can be altered or changed in its interior by any other created thing; since it would be impossible to transpose anything in it, or conceive in it any internal movement which could be excited, directed, augmented or diminished within, such as may take place
____________________
*
La Monadologie, 1714; in Opera Philosophica, edited by J. E. Erdmann, Berlin, 1840. The English translation is here reprinted, with occasional minor changes, from The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, edited by William T. Harris , i, 1867, pp. 129-137; id., F. H. Hedge Atheism in Philosophy, and other Essays, Boston, Roberts Brothers, 1884, pp. 245-273.

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Modern Classical Philosophers: Selections Illustrating Modern Philosophy from Bruno to Bergson
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) 1
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) 24
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) 57
  • RenÉ Descartes (1596-1650) 101
  • Baruch De Spinoza (1632-1677) 148
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz (1646-1716) 199
  • John Locke (1632-1704) 215
  • George Berkeley (1685-1753) 263
  • David Hume (1711-1766) 307
  • Etienne Bonnot De Condillac (1715-1780) 347
  • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 376
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) 486
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Von Schelling. (1775-1854) 535
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) 569
  • Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) 629
  • Auguste Comte (1798-1857) 672
  • John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) 690
  • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) 703
  • Index 733
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