Translated from the German* by BENJAMIN RAND
1. ALL knowledge is based upon the agreement of an objective with a subjective. For we know only the true, and the truth is universally held to be the agreement of representations with their objects.
2. The sum of all that is purely objective in our knowledge we may call Nature; whereas the sum of everything subjective may be termed the Ego, or Intelligence. These two concepts are mutually opposed. Intelligence is originally conceived as that which solely represents, and nature as that which is merely capable of representation; the former as the conscious -- the latter as the unconscious. But in all knowledge there is necessary a mutual agreement of the two -- the conscious and the unconscious per se. The problem is to explain this agreement.
3. In knowledge itself, in that I know, the objective and subjective are so united that one cannot say which of the two has priority. There is here no first and no second -- the two are contemporaneous and one. In any attempt to explain this identity, I must already have resolved it. In order to explain it, inasmuch as there is nothing else given me as a principle of explanation except these two factors of knowledge, I must of necessity place the one before the other, that is to say, must set out from the one in order to arrive at the other. From which of the two I shall set out is not determined by the problem.____________________