# Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals: An Essay in Metaphysics

By D. S. Shwayder | Go to book overview

CHAPTER I
PROLEGOMENA TO THE THEORY OF REFERRING

PART 1. INTRODUCTION

IN THE writings of philosophers and logicians we regularly meet with such pronouncements as " ' Boston' " is the name of (the word) ' Boston' Now, if by "name" is meant "proper name," where "Boston" is the proper name of certain cities, then what we are told is literally untrue and very possibly misleading. It would be wrong to suppose that " ' Boston' " stands in the same kind of logical relation to ' Boston' as ' Boston' stands, say, to Boston, Massachusetts. It is, however, true that " ' Boston' " and ' Boston,' as here considered and when properly employed, may both, following recent terminology, be classified as referring expressions (hereafter "r.e."), that is, expressions used to refer to particular objects. The assimilation of quoted expressions to proper names is only part of a widely operating tendency toward the mutual assimilation of many different varieties of r.e., among which are (proper) proper names, demonstrative and personal pronouns, definite descriptions, expressions in quotes as illustrated above, adjectives like "blue" when used in sentences, such as "Blue is cooler than red," numerals as used to refer to houses on a street, and numerals as used to refer to numbers in number theory, as in "11 is a prime number" (I shall mark and separate the two uses of numerals mentioned by calling them "numbering-numerals" and "number-numerals," respectively.) These are not the only varieties of r.e.,1 but they suffice to make the point; for all these are distinct types.

We may already see, if but roughly, some of the important and different ways in which the varieties of r.e. work. Certain kinds operate much more systematically than do others. Numbering-numerals, as used to refer to the offices in a large building, work much more systematically than do proper names, and thereby convey much more information about their referents. The use of pronouns is much more thoroughly occasion-dependent than is the use of proper names. Adjectives like

____________________
1
The word "a," as in "a (certain specific, but I cannot or do not care to specify which) man called this afternoon" provides another rather interesting device for forming r.e.'s. I do not examine that case in this work, for the differences between "a . . ." and "the . . ." will most readily emerge only when we approach from the direction of the study of statements customarily made with sentences containing "applicatives" such as "all," "some," "each," "a." But I neglect many other cases as well, e.g., names with titles like "LordRussell" or "QueenAnn."

-5-

If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

#### Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.
Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.
Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
• Saved book/article
• Highlights
• Quotes/citations
• Notes
• Bookmarks
Notes

#### Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

#### Cited page

Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals: An Essay in Metaphysics

• Title Page iii
• Acknowledgments vii
• Contents ix
• Introduction 1
• Chapter I - Prolegomena to the Theory Of Referring 5
• Chapter II - Modes of Referring 37
• Chapter III - Properties 72
• Chapter IV - The Natural Numbers 116
Settings

#### Settings

Typeface
Text size Reset View mode
Search within

Look up

#### Look up a word

• Dictionary
• Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 164

### How to highlight and cite specific passages

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

## Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

## Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.