Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals: An Essay in Metaphysics

By D. S. Shwayder | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II
MODES OF REFERRING

PART 1. SOME GENERAL FORMS OF REFERENCE

1. Schematizing referring. -- The employment of an o.r.e. in a successful language act contributes what I call a reference: for example, a reference to a person by his Christian name ("Peter"), or a reference to a natural number as resolved into its prime factors (22.5.73). Associated with every reference is a referent -- a particular object, a man, perhaps, or a natural number. The same object may be associated with different references: a single person may be referred to by his given name or as the eldest son of his parents or as the third in some rank. In the sense of "identify" discussed on pages 15 ff., the reference identifies the referent, but the same referent might have been otherwise identified. That is why it usually makes sense to ask "Who?" or "Which?" But by using the o.r.e. successfully we determine the reference and identify the referent. The o.r.e. is cut out to determine the reference, and we make our sense identifiable by using the o.r.e. to show that the success of the act involves that reference, though the context will frequently supersede the express employment of the o.r.e. A description of the reference (not the referent), a specification of the Sinn in Frege's terminology, includes a description of how the use of o.r.e. identifies the referent.

In my scheme, then, every reference identifies a referent;1 the successful use of an o.r.e. would imply an answer to the question "Which?" I agree with philosophers like Frege who hold that every meaningful sign has a sense. I disagree with those philosophers -- perhaps, but only "perhaps," including Mill -- who subscribe to the contrary view. Even the use of the barest, purest proper name, an almost degenerate case, identifies, for the use of the name surely identifies the referent as the one known to those present having that name. Should we wish to explain the sense of such an expression, we could begin by saying that it was a proper name.

That a reference should identify a referent, it is implied that there be such a referent, distinguishable from all other objects of the same

____________________
1
Despite refinements in my views, set out in notes 12, 14, and 16 to chap. i, I should hold by this thesis, but in a modified terminology, allowing for a distinction to be drawn between identifying and nonidentifying references. As it turns out, the epitome of a nonidentifying reference affords almost maximal information bearing on the ascertainment of identity, an idea which this section will crystallize. See note 3, below.

-37-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals: An Essay in Metaphysics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter I - Prolegomena to the Theory Of Referring 5
  • Chapter II - Modes of Referring 37
  • Chapter III - Properties 72
  • Chapter IV - The Natural Numbers 116
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 164

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.