The Exact Sciences in Antiquity

By O. Neugebauer | Go to book overview

p. 357-472. Cf. also Mitteilungen aus der Papyrussammlung der National- bibliothek in Wien, Griechische literarische Papyri I ( 1932) [ Gerstinger and Vogel].

A great number of geometrical and arithmetical problems are found on papyri. A systematic investigation of this scattered material would be worthwhile. I mention only especially large multiplication tables for fractions from the fourth century published as No. 146 in Michigan Papyri vol. III ( 1936). Many smaller tables are preserved both in Greek and in Demotic.

An excellent brief summary of Egyptian mathematics was given by T. E. Peet, Bull. John Rylands Library 15 ( 1931). A detailed study by the present author of the arithmetical methods is to be found in Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, ser. B, vol. 1 ( 1930) p. 301-380, on geometry p. 413-451.

For a deeper understanding of the background which determined the character of Egyptian arithmetic, the study of the following works will be of great help: Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, Fonctions mentales dans les sociétés inférieures ( 1922); Heinrich Schaefer, Von aegyptischer Kunst ( 1919), and Kurt Sethe, Von Zahlen und Zahlworten (quoted p. 23).

General works on Egypt: J. H. Breasted, A History of Egypt, New York, Scribner. A. Erman, The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians; Poems, Narratives, and Manuals of Instruction, from the Third and Second Millenia B.C., New York, E. P. Dutton, 1927. Egyptian mathematics is described in O. Neugebauer , Vorgriechische Mathematik. Berlin, Springer, 1934 (quoted as "Vorlesungen"). There exists no modern work on Egyptian astronomy. An edition of all available Egyptian astronomical texts by R. A. Parker and the present author is in preparation. For literature concerning special problems see the notes given below to Nos. 39 ff.


NOTES AND REFERENCES TO CHAPTER IV
ad 36.
A detailed analysis of the table for of the Papyrus Rhind is given in my book "Die Grundlagen der ägyptischen Bruchrechnung", Berlin, Springer, 1926. This theory is summarized in my "Vorlesungen" p. 137 ff. Modifications were proposed by van der Waerden "Die Entstehungsgeschichte der aegyptischen Bruchrechnung" in "Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathemalik" ser. B vol. 4 ( 1937) p. 359-382.
ad 37.
As stated in the text we find already in the New Kingdom an exception to the rules of the Papyrus Rhind for the duplication of unit fractions. William C. Haves , Ostraca and Name Stones from the Tomb of Sen-Mut (No. 71) at Thebes, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Egyptian Expedition [Publications No. 15] New York 1942, published an ostracon (No. 153) which contains the following computation1)
____________________
1)
The restoration of the original problem given by Hayes seems to me very doubtful. In the first line one can read safely only 3 + ̄ 14 + ̄ 2 + ̄ 21 + ̄ and I see no reason for restoring "cubit, palm(?)" at the beginning. The four fractions obviously form two pairs but I do not understand their relation to the subsequent operations.

-92-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Exact Sciences in Antiquity
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 255

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.