The Protestant Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Italy

By Salvatore Caponetto; Anne C. Tedeschi et al. | Go to book overview

8
POLITICS AND RELIGION

LUTHER AND THE VENETIAN BRETHREN

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION sank roots in those European countries where the interaction of religious, social, and economic factors provided it with the political support that in spite of profound conflicts, permitted it to construct a new church separate from the Church of Rome.

All the great reformers-- Luther, Zwingli, Melanchthon, Bucer, Calvin--realized, from the experience of their struggle for the affirmation of "Christian freedom," that it was impossible to carry on a war on three fronts, against pope, emperor, and Sorbonne, representing respectively religious and political authority, and the authority of traditional theology. For success, secular rulers had to be convinced that not only the clergy but even individual believers had the right to interpret Scripture, and that the pope was not endowed with the divine right of absolute sovereignty over the civic and social life of their states.

With a high sense of realism and exquisite political instinct remarkable for a man who had lived previously between a monastic cell and a university classroom, Luther addressed himself "to the Christian nobility of the German nation," with the first of the three great works he published in 1520. Similarly, Calvin prefaced the first edition of his Institutio Christianae religionis ( 1536) with an appeal to Francis I of France to force an end to the ecclesiastical persecution against the preachers of the Gospel in his country. Zwingli's approach to the Zurich City Council was not substantially different.

But for the Italian states, barring the appeals to the Signoria of Venice by the martyrs Galateo, Fonzio, and Lupatino, it was not clear who might dare attempt such an initiative without risking reprisal from the pope who could bring to bear the full weight of his spiritual and temporal authority, built on a closely knit network linked by the economic interests of the great noble families, bankers, and merchants of the peninsula.

-105-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Protestant Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Italy
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 452

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.