Edward Howard & Co. -- was being started in Cleveland, Ohio. Edward Howard, like John W. Hill who followed in his footsteps 2 years later, quit his job at the Cleveland Trust Co. where he had been editor of the bank's employee magazine and started a one-man agency in 1925. After the founder's death in 1954, his sons Edward Jim took over the business and expanded it. In 1965, Edward Howard & Co. opened a New York City office. In 1969, the Howard firm bought Selvage and Lee -- founded in the 1940s by James Selvage and Morris Lee. In 1974, the Selvage, Lee, and Howard operation was dissolved, and Edward Howard & Co. returned to being a Cleveland-based firm. Upon dissolution of the Selvage-Lee-Howard operation, Farley Manning, who had started his firm after World War II, merged with a revamped Selvage and Lee to form Manning, Selvage, and Lee, a large firm today. Morris Lee was still active in the original firm when he and Manning merged.
Also a major factor in the public relations-communications boom of the 1920s was the advent of radio broadcasting that provided an instant and expanded means of communication for alert publicists.
Information on Herbert Hoover's skilled use of public relations in World War I is from an unpublished master's thesis by Leonard P. Deleanis, "Herbert Hoover's Use of Public Relations in the U. S. Food Administration, 1917-1919," University of Wisconsin, 1969. President Hoover was the first president to officially designate a White House press secretary. On this, see Marietta Pane, "George Akerson: First Presidential Secretary," unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1969.
For the unsavory history of the Insull-led propaganda campaign against municipal ownership of utilities, see: Utility Corporations. Efforts by Associations and Agencies of Electric and Gas Utilities to Influence Public Opinion, A Summary Report Prepared by the Federal Trade Commission, 70th Congress, 1st Session (Senate Document 92, Part 71-A), Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1934; and Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday. Harper, 1957.
The brief account of the Ketchum agency is based on: (a) a letter from Judith Campbell, University of Pittsburgh, after a careful search of the university files, to me dated August 2, 1961; (b) Carlton G. Ketchum in Memorandum dated March 1, 1960, addressed to David S. Ketchum, "Material for Article on the History of Trends in Fund Raising Campaigns for Colleges and Universities," in that firm's files; and (c) a letter from Carlton Ketchum, to me dated Sept. 6, 1961.