This volume, like its predecessor, The Roots of American Communism, was written as part of a project on Communism in American Life, sponsored by the Fund for the Republic and directed by Clinton Rossiter. I am grateful to the Fund for the Republic and to Professor Rossiter for making the work possible under conditions of complete freedom and independence.
I have tried to give credit in the Notes for the information and material obtained from personal sources. I have spent many hours, and sometimes days, interviewing and corresponding with the following: Max Bedacht, Earl Browder, James P. Cannon, Samuel A. Darcy, Joseph Freeman, Manuel Gomez, Otto Hall, Harry Haywood, Ludwig E. Katterfeld, William F. Kruse, Jay Lovestone, Benjamin Mandel, Max Shachtman, Maurice Spector, Albert Weisbord, Edward Welsh, and Bertram D. Wolfe. I corresponded with or obtained unpublished material from Cyril V. Briggs, Max Eastman, Joseph Zack Kornfeder, Arne Swabeck, Mrs. Ruth Wicks, and Charles S. Zimmerman. Some of the interviews and correspondence covered a larger period, and only a portion of this material has been used in this volume. All answered questions or provided material without any strings attached, and none can be held responsible for views expressed in this book or for the way the information has been used.
The onerous and delicate task of criticizing various stages of the entire manuscript was inflicted on Daniel Bell, Earl Browder, James P. Cannon, Joseph Carter, Joseph Freeman, Philip J. Jaffe, Murray J.