Iraqi Attitudes and Interpretation of the 1975 Agreement
IBRAHIM ANVARI TEHRANI
On September 22, 1980, Iraq initiated an all-out premeditated war against Iran, aiming to subvert the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1 Iraqi armed forces managed to bring large areas in western Iran under their occupation. My purpose here is to demonstrate the ill will of Iraqi leaders and the obstructions put in the way of implementing the treaties existing between the two countries.
After Abdol Karim Qasim's coup d'état in July 1958, disputes between Iran and Iraq intensified. From the earliest days of the coup, the Iraqi press published articles against Iran and Radio Baghdad broadcast anti-Iran programs. Iraqi officials began to mistreat Iranians residing in Iraq and to harass Iranian nationals in border regions. The government of Iran showed tolerance and resilience and seized every opportunity to ameliorate the situation. In the latter part of October 1958, Iranian leaders expressed hope that the government of Iraq would participate in the session of the special commission charged with settling boundary problems and questions relating to the Shatt al-Arab waterway by November 6, 1958, so that problems relating to demarcation of frontiers and the arrangements for the administration of the river could be totally settled. The Iraqi government not only showed reluctance to fulfill agreements existing between the two countries but also created new difficulties for Iran in Shatt al-Arab. The rich pro-