The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression

By Farhang Rajaee | Go to book overview

13
The Inherent Right of Individual Self-Defense in the Iran-Iraq War

DJAMCHID MOMTAZ

On September 22, 1980, Iraq launched a large-scale attack against Iran. As a result of their surprise attack, the Iraqi forces were able to cross international boundaries without much difficulty 1 and, after a few days of fighting, occupied 30,000 square kilometers of Iranian territory. 2 To justify its action, Iraq resorted to the concept of "legitimate preventive defense." 3 Below, I shall reject the validity and credibility of Iraqs recourse to this concept. In my opinion and that of my colleagues, Iraq, by violating the provisions of the United Nations Charter, resorted to force, and we believe Iraqs action has all the characteristics of an act of aggression as defined in the annex of UN General Assembly Resolution 3314. 4

Faced with armed aggression, Iran reacted immediately and spontaneously in order to exercise its right of individual self-defense in accordance with Article 51 of the UN Charter. 5 There is no doubt that in this case we are talking about subsidiary and provisional competence that cannot be exercised, in accordance with Article 51 of the charter. This article provides for such action until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Accordingly, the negligence and incapability of the Security Council to assume its responsibility can be taken by Iran as a legal basis for pursuing military operations.

-183-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 248

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.