The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression

By Farhang Rajaee | Go to book overview

ties, the international community must formulate and codify restrictive regulations for these new cases. This is essential, considering the prevailing international climate and the policies of superpowers aimed at creating tension and waging proxy wars in different parts of the world in order to reach their goals. The possibility of another imposed war, similar to that imposed on Iran, cannot be ruled out.


Notes
1.
From the early nineteenth century, treaties and conventions were concluded and adopted that codified rules and regulations of war. These rules basically deal with the area of combat, the weapons that may be used in war, humanitarian considerations, protection of civilian property, protection of civilian fife, and prevention of the extension of war to neutral states.
2.
War crimes generally include offenses committed by the armed forces, including the heads of state, and entail punishment for the perpetrators. Most authorities believe that there are four categories of war crimes: violations of laws and customs of war; hostile military actions against civilian populations; espionage, destruction, and treason in time of war; and all kinds of plunder of property. Paragraph B of Article 6 of the Nuremberg Charter considers the second category as punishable crimes in international law.
3.
Article 44 of the Chicago Convention, while enumerating the objectives of the organization, emphasizes that international civil aviation shall be carried out throughout the world in an orderly and safe manner and that the safety of flights for international aviation shall be promoted.
4.
"Naval blockade" means naval blockade in time of war, which is different from naval blockade in time of peace and also from economic blockade.
5.
For more information on "naval blockade," see L. Oppenheim, International Law ( London: Longmans, 1965), 2:767-97.
6.
For more information on the control of traffic and visit and search of ships by warships of belligerent states, see Mostafa Forootan, "Neutrality and Search of Merchant Ships," Foreign Policy Magazine (in Persian), 2, no. 1 (Winter 1984): 87-104.
7.
The judgments of the U.S.-British Arbitration Tribunal in the Wanderer Case issued in 1921 and of the Hague Tribunal in the Cartage Case in 1913 confirm the existence of such a principle in international laws of war.
8.
New York Times, January 14, 1986.
9.
Oppenheim, International Law, 781.
10.
According to Kayhan (Persian daily newspaper) of May 24, 1988, as a result of Iraqi attacks on oil tankers near Larak Island on May 14, 1988, oil spilled into the sea on a large scale, causing the death of millions of shrimp. A large number of oysters, crustaceans and mollusks were also destroyed, and other kinds

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