Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States & the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election

By David W. Throup; Charles Hornsby | Go to book overview
governments were heavily committed to the election, and were willing to spend large amounts of financial and political capital in attempting to bring it about. By Kenyan standards, SH80 million (US$2.1 million) for monitoring, voter education and related activities is a large sum. It is questionable, however, whether the Western donors always received value for money. There was considerable overlap of financial provision, and some of it appears to have been pledged for activities which did not take place. The West believed that the government intended to cheat, but hoped that they had made cheating so difficult that in most parts of the country the elections would be free and fair, and voters would be free to repudiate President Moi and KANU. They were to prove mistaken.
Notes
1. C. P.W. Hornby unpublished 1985 D. Phil. thesis, "'The Kenyan Member of Parliament, 1969-83'", p. 38, observed three years earlier that queue voting 'would have caused chaos in a national election'.
2. Ibid., for details on the electoral process in the 1970s and early 1980s.
3. Ibid., pp. 85-90.
4. Ibid., pp. 80-5.
5. Government Gazette Notice 4512, 4 October 1991. The previous commission, whose remit had expired, was chaired by James Nyamweya (who later joined the DP).
6. Economic Review, 16 November 1992, p. 5.
7. Monthly News and The Presidential Parliamentary and Civic Elections in Kenya: 29 December, 1992: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group ( Commonwealth Report), p. 64.
8. Commonwealth Report, p. 10.
9. Standard, 16 January 1993, p. 5.
10. Daily Nation, 14 October 1992, p. 4.
11. Daily Nation, 14 November 1992 p. 5.
12. Nyamu, speaking in Accra, quoted in Sunday Nation, 5 June 1993, p. 16.
13. Appendix 8, NEMU report.
14. Government Gazette Notice 5420, reported in Standard on Sunday, 22 November 1992.
15. Representative of the Commission Ramsay, reported in Daily Nation, 12 November 1992 p. 22.
16. Amos Wako, reported in Daily Nation, 13 November 1992, pp. 1-2.
17. Japeth Kiti, reported in Weekly Review, 20 November 1992, p. 4
18. Most MPs had no idea of the official procedure. See Weekly Review, 24 July 1992, pp. 12-14.
19. Waihenya Ndirangu (Nyeri Town) was the only MP who voted against. The bill was given presidential assent on 27 August 1992. See Daily Nation, 28 August 1992, p. 3.
20. Constitution of Kenya Amendment Act No. 6 of 1992 to section 9 of the constitution.
21. See for example Odinga's letter in Society, 21 November 1992.
22. Wako, reprinted in Monthly News, September 1992, p. 14.
23. Constitution of Kenya, II.1.9.(2), Rev. 1992, Government Printer, Nairobi.
24. Nairobi Law Monthly, No. 46 ( October/November 1992), pp. 19-20 argued that it was retrospective. For the ruling, see Kenya Times, 12 December 1992, pp. 1 and 7. The issue was then raised by Matiba in his election petition.
25. Amos Wako, in the National Assembly, reprinted in Society, 24 August 1992, p. 33.
26. Standard, 16 December 1992, p. 14.
27. Nonetheless, minor alterations to the constituency boundaries continued in the build up to registration.
28. A version of the information was presented at the ASA(UK) Conference in Stirling, September 1992.

-285-

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Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States & the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Figures, Tables & Photographs v
  • Acknowledgements viii
  • One - Introduction 1
  • Two - The Independence Struggle the Development of Political Consciousness 7
  • Three - The Creation of the Moi State 26
  • Notes 51
  • Four - The Regime in Crisis, January 1990-December 1991 54
  • Notes 88
  • Five - The Rise and Fall of the Opposition, December 1991-October 1992 92
  • Notes 164
  • Six - Kanu Fights Back December 1991-October 1992 173
  • Notes 237
  • Seven - The Electoral Process 242
  • Notes 285
  • Eight - The Beginnings of the Campaign & the Party Primaries 288
  • Notes 335
  • Nine - The Election Campaign 339
  • Notes 417
  • Ten - Election Day & the Results 424
  • Notes 451
  • Eleven - Why Kanu Won 453
  • Notes 527
  • Twelve - Kanu Rules the Nation 533
  • Thirteen - Conclusions the Emergence of Multi-Party Competition 582
  • Notes 603
  • Appendices 604
  • Index 642
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