Science and the Renaissance - Vol. 1

By W. P. D. Wightman | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VI
THE MATHEMATICAL DISCIPLINES

BEFORE the close of the fifteenth century well over two hundred mathematical books had been printed in Italy alone; of these the great majority were arithmetical as distinct from geometrical. It is necessary to put the matter in this somewhat vague manner, since the division of mathematics into departments was on lines somewhat different from those of today. Geometry consisted of the fifteen books of ' Euclid' (Books I-XIII are attributed to Euclid of Alexandria, c. 300 B.C., Book XIV to Hypsikles, c. 150 B.C.; Book XV is probably a composite work1), together with a number of commentaries thereon; the greater part of the works of Archimedes (see No. 38); the Conics of Apollonios; the ' Spherics' of Theodosios of Tripoli (II-I), and the Geometria Speculativa of Thomas Bradwardine. Of these only the Elements of Euclid, with the commentary of Campanus of Novara, were printed before 1500. Trigonometry as a separate discipline did not exist; though Menelaos of Alexandria (c. 100 A.D.) had disengaged the study of spherical triangles from astronomy. The first book devoted wholly to the solution of triangles had been announced as a 'forthcoming attraction' in the trade list of Regiomontanus (see p. 110): it was first printed in 1533 (No. 557). During all the period with which we are concerned arithmetica was distinguished from logistica, ars supputandi, etc. The former was derived from the Arithmetica of Boethius, which was based on a similar work by Nichomachos of Gyrasa (c. 100 A.D.), itself a compilation of the theory of numbers developed by Euclid. It was useless for computation and almost strangled at birth by the cumbersome terminology used to classify the kinds of numbers (all of course positive cardinals); nevertheless it was the mainstay of academic arithmetic until late in the sixteenth century, and

____________________
1
G. Loria, Histoire des Sciences Mathématiques dans l'Antiquité Hellénique, Paris, 1929, pp. 86-7; in the sixteenth century Books XIV-XV were both commonly attributed to Hypsikles.

-87-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Science and the Renaissance - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 331

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.