The Roots of American Communism is the first volume of a history of the American Communist movement which I intend to bring up to 1945. My work was started in 1952 on a part-time basis with the encouragement and generosity of Max Ascoli. Since June 1955, I have devoted my full time to the work as part of the project sponsored by the Fund for the Republic on the Study of Communist Influence in American Life, directed by Professor Clinton Rossiter. I am deeply indebted to Max Ascoli and to the Fund for the Republic for support which enabled me to work in complete freedom and independence.
In the Introduction as well as in the Notes I have referred to the information and material obtained from personal sources. These interviews and letters generally covered a larger period than this volume and, therefore, only a portion of this material has been used. I have spent many hours with Earl Browder, before and after my association with the Fund for the Republic's project. A long correspondence was carried on with James P. Cannon, supplemented by two personal meetings. Three interviews were held with Jay Lovestone. I had two interviews and exchanged several letters with Max Bedacht. Bertram D. Wolfe gave me the benefit of his personal experience on three occasions.
All these men devoted their time and knowledge without conditions or stipulations. Though personal sources of information account for