Bernard Grofman, Professor of Political Science and Social Psychology, University of California, Irvine, is co-editor of Representation and Redistricting Issues ( Heath, 1982); Choosing an Electoral System ( Praeger, 1984), Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences ( Agathon, 1986), and "The Federalist Papers" and the New Institutionalism ( Agathon, 1989). He has served as an expert witness or court-appointed consultant in legislative or congressional litigation in eight states and in cases involving local jurisdictions (including Chicago, Boston, and Los Angeles) in several other states. His recent publications on reapportionment include: "Criteria for Districting: A Social Science Perspective," UCLA Law Review ( October 1985); Amihai Glazer, Grofman, and Marc Robbins , "Partisan and Incumbency Effects of 1970s Congressional Redistricting," American Journal of Political Science ( June 1987); and Guillermo Owen and Grofman, "Optimal Partisan Gerrymandering," Political Geography Quarterly ( January 1988).
Charles Backstrom is Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. He is author of "The Practice and Effect of Redistricting" Political Geography Quarterly ( October 1982), and "Problems of Implementing Redistricting," in B. Grofman et al., eds., Representation and Redistricting Issues ( Heath, 1982). He is co-author (with Leonard Robins and Scott Eller) of "Issues in Gerrymandering: An Exploratory Measure of Partisan Gerrymandering Applied to Minnesota," Minnesota Law Review ( January 1987), and "Partisan Gerrymandering in the Post-Bandemer Era," Constitutional Commentary (Summer 1987). He served on the Minnesota Governor's Bipartisan Commission on Reapportionment in 1964-65 and has been a consultant to counsel litigating reapportionment suits for two decades.
Gordon E. Baker is Professor of Political Science, University of California, Santa Barbara. His books include The Reapportionment Revolution ( Random House, 1966), and he has served as Consultant to the Special Masters appointed by the California Supreme Court in 1973 to redistrict the State's legislative and congressional districts. His most recent articles on reapportionment include "Whatever Happened to the Reapportionment Revolution in the United States?," in B. Grofman and A. Lijphart (eds.), Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences ( Agathon, 1986), and "Judicial Determination of Political Gerrymandering: A Totality of Circumstances Approach," Journal of Law and Politics ( 1986).
Bruce Cain, Professor of Political Science, California Institute of Technology, is author of The Reapportionment Puzzle ( University of California Press, 1984)