Speech Correction: Principles and Methods

By C. Van Riper | Go to book overview

4
Recognition and Prevention of Speech Disorders

Definition . Many definitions have been used in the attempt to differentiate normal from abnormal speech, but none of them is completely successful for the very good reason that no clear-cut distinction can exist. Perhaps the best definition is as follows: Speech is defective when it deviates so far from the speech of other people in the group that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or causes its possessor to be maladjusted to his environment. All speech deviations are not, of course, speech defects. There are thousands of ways in which the sound of s may be produced, and not only do so-called normal speakers differ from each other in their speech sounds, but they are not consistent in their own speech. The speech difference has to be so conspicuous that other people notice it. Communication may be accomplished, but only despite the difference. In the fact that speech differences cause their possessors to be maladjusted lies the theme of our next chapter, which sketches the contribution of speech peculiarity to the warping of personality. The definition in itself is clear evidence of the seriousness of a speech handicap--a seriousness which few parents or teachers have appreciated.

Several terms have been used to label these speech differences. Certain authorities intensely dislike the term "speech defective," even though they consent to use the

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Speech Correction: Principles and Methods
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Illustrations xix
  • I - Speech Handicaps and the Need for Speech Correction 1
  • References 9
  • 2 - The Nature of Speech 12
  • References 36
  • 3 - The Development of Speech 39
  • References 48
  • 4 - Recognition and Prevention of Speech Disorders 51
  • References 59
  • 5 - The Speech Defective 62
  • References 89
  • 6 - The Speech Correctionist and General Procedures in Treatment 93
  • References 112
  • 7 - The Case History 114
  • References 138
  • 8 - Special Tests and Examination Methods 140
  • References 153
  • Speech Tests 156
  • References 181
  • 10 - Treatment of the Child Who Has Not Learned to Talk 183
  • References 206
  • II - Treatment of Articulatory Disorders 208
  • References 264
  • 12 - The Treatment of Voice Disorders 269
  • References 309
  • 13 - The Treatment of Stuttering 316
  • References 392
  • 14 - Cleft-Palate Speech 402
  • References 413
  • 15 - The Problem of Bilingualism and Foreign Dialect 416
  • References 426
  • Index 429
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