Although the case history gives us much information about the causes and development of a speech disorder, it tells us little of what we need to know about the actual symptoms. To discover these, we use systematic methods of speech analysis. As we have previously implied, it is seldom sufficient in speech correction to discover and remove the original causes of the disorder. Frequently they no longer exist at the time the patient applies for treatment, but they have lasted long enough to set up bad speech habits which can perpetuate themselves. As we have said, speech correction is reeducation, and therefore implies error- analysis, the tearing down of defective speech habits, the substitution of correct speech habits, the removal of etiological factors, and the formation of adequate reactions to speech situations. This chapter deals with methods for making such speech analyses. It is divided into sections for each of the four major types of speech disorders.
Articulatory disorders, as we have defined them, are characterized by errors of sound substitution, addition, omission, and distortion. Each speech correctionist devises his own procedure for giving the articulatory examination. Even when students have been trained according to one standard technique, they find it necessary to make modifications to fit the individuality of each case they examine. For