Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking

By Diane F. Halpern | Go to book overview
this chapter? Did you consider the reason for the communication and have you satisfied that reason?
CHAPTER SUMMARY
1. Psycholinguistics is the branch of psychology that is concerned with understanding how people produce and comprehend language.
2. Psychologists view language as comprising two components or levels: a meaning component (underlying representation) and a speech sound component (surface structure). The problem of comprehension is moving from a thought by the sender (underlying structure) through language and then reconstruction of the thought by the receiver.
3. Language is ambiguous when a single surface structure has two or more possible underlying representations.
4. Language and thought exert mutual influences on each other with our thoughts determining the language we use and, in turn, the language we use reshaping our thoughts.
5. Six rules of communication were presented. Every time we attempt to communicate with others, we utilize these rules to determine what information we will convey and how to express the information.
6. Language comprehension requires that the listener make many inferences. The kinds of inferences we make depend on context, manner, and the words selected to convey the message.
7. There are many ways that words can be used to deliberately mislead the listener. Several ways that the choice of words can influence thought were presented. The deliberate use of emotional and nonemotional words is designed to influence how you think about a topic.
8. Emotional words often evoke strong mental images. Because images are highly resistant to forgetting, they are readily available when the topic is mentioned.
9. Prototypes, or the most typical member of a category, are usually thought of first when we think about an example of a category. These prototypes bias what we think. This bias can be overcome with deliberate practice at generating examples that are not typical.
10. The way in which we judge or evaluate a situation depends on the context in which it is embedded and the way it contrasts with similar recent events. Our judgments are strongly determined by recent experiences.
11. Strategies to improve the comprehension of text were described. They all require learners to attend to the structure of the information and to make the relationships among concepts explicit.

TERMS TO KNOW

You should be able to define or describe the following terms and concepts. If you find that you're having difficulty with any term, be sure to reread the section in which it is discussed.

Psycholinguistics. The branch of psychology that is concerned with the acquisition, production, comprehension, and usage of language.

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Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Acknowledgments for the First Edition xiii
  • 1 - Thinking: an Introduction 1
  • Chapter Summary 32
  • 2 - Memory: The Acquisition Retention, and Retrieval of Knowledge 36
  • Chapter Summary 70
  • 3 - The Relationship Between Thought and Language 75
  • Chapter Summary 115
  • 4 - Reasoning: Drawing Deductively Valid Conclusions 118
  • Chapter Summary 162
  • 5 - Analyzing Arguments 167
  • Chapter Summary 207
  • 6 - Thinking as Hypothesis Testing 212
  • Chapter Summary 237
  • 7 - Likelihood and Uncertainty: Understanding Probabilities 241
  • Chapter Summary 277
  • 8 - Decision Making 281
  • Chapter Summary 313
  • 9 - Development of Problem-Solving Skills 317
  • Chapter Summary 360
  • 10 - Creativethinking 364
  • Chapter Summary 389
  • 11 - The Last Word 393
  • References 395
  • Author Index 409
  • Subject Index 415
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