Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview

10
An Outline of the Survey's ICE Parsing Scheme

JUSTIN BUCKLEY


1. INTRODUCTION

Another form of annotation applied to ICE-GB (the British component of the ICE corpus) was parsing, in which our aim was to analyse each of the utterances in the corpus according to their form, or category, and their function, and according to the relationships between their component parts. ICE-GB was initially parsed using the TOSCA automatic parser, which provided one or more analyses to be checked and selected manually. Most utterances were parsed in this way, but for those that could not be parsed by the TOSCA parser, a new parser was created at the Survey of English Usage (cf. Chapter 11). The Survey parser offers one analysis for each utterance, either a complete parse or a partial parse. ICETREE, a manual tree editor, was compiled at the Survey to cater for the analyses produced by the Survey parser. It is used to check and correct parses and to complete partial parses.

Manual tree editing has given us the opportunity to introduce new parsing terms that enable us to complete the analysis of problematic constructions, or of constructions hitherto not catered for. The new scheme also applies to the Survey parser. The Survey parsing scheme is based on the TOSCA system, but differs from it in many respects. What follows is a general overview of the Survey parsing scheme, which includes many of the new terms introduced into the ICE parsing hierarchy.


2. PARSING

Each word in the corpus is given a word-class tag to show what category of word it belongs to. Each word also performs a function. Groups of words are categorized, and they also perform functions. Every group of words, from the largest (a whole sentence, say) to the smallest (an individual word) performs a function and is described by a category. The process of parsing is the gradual narrowing of word groupings, and the identification of the function each grouping performs and its category. The result of such analysis is displayed as a labelled tree, as in Fig. 10.1.

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Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281
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