Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview

12
The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICE: Some Methodological Challenges 1

JANET HOLMES

New Zealand linguists have been involved over the last eight years in planning and collecting data for a number of different written and spoken corpora of New Zealand English. These include the Wellington Corpus of New Zealand English (WCNZE) with its one million word written and one million word spoken components, and the New Zealand contributions to the International Corpus of English (ICE) Project, which involved a total of one million words composed of representative extracts of written and spoken New Zealand English. 2 This paper describes some of the methodological problems encountered in collecting material for a spoken corpus of New Zealand English, including the issue of who counts as a speaker of New Zealand English, the problems of collecting data in particular categories, and the procedures put in place to process collected data.

The idea of collecting a Corpus of New Zealand English had been discussed by New Zealand linguists since the mid-1980s. A number of New Zealand linguists had been using corpora in their research into vocabulary ( Kennedy, 1991; Bauer and Nation, 1993), and the expression of speech functions such as quantity ( Kennedy, 1987), causation ( Kennedy and Fang, 1992) and certainty ( Holmes, 1982, 1983). They were very aware of the valuable resources which had been made available by the Brown Corpus of American English in the early 1960s, the LOB Corpus of British written English in 1987, and the LUND Corpus of British spoken English in 1980. In 1987, after much debate about design and methodology, linguists at Victoria University began collecting data for the Wellington Corpus of Written and Spoken New Zealand English. Hence, when Sidney Greenbaum proposed that an International Corpus of English should be gathered ( 1988), it seemed sensible to ensure that New Zealand linguists also collected material suitable for inclusion in that corpus.


1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF ICE

The parameters of the International Corpus were debated and finally decided at international gatherings where it was not always possible for New Zealand linguists

-163-

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Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281
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