Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview
framework of the Special Research Programme on Africa at the University of Bayreuth ( Germany). I am grateful to the British ICE team (led by Sidney Greenbaum) for many years of fruitful co-operation and their willingness to share materials and data from the British ICE component.
The notion of representativeness has been challenged by Rieger ( 1979) and Mair ( 1990: 12-17), for instance, its application to the study of language is by no means clear (cf. Romaine, 1982).
The only area in the world where an English variety is not the H variety, but the L variety is in Caribbean Central America, where, for instance, around Bluefields ( Nicaragua) a creolized variety is spoken with Spanish as the H variety. The consequences of such a situation are partly similar (colonial lag) and partly different (code-switching); in the world-wide context, however, they are clearly the exception. Unfortunately a Caribbean component could not be included in the ICE framework.
Additionally, corpus material can be used to provide illustrative examples, which can, however, also be achieved through any item-based sample collection (on the different approaches cf. Schmied, 1991: 202).


ASHER R. E. ( 1994) (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics ( Oxford: Pergamon).

BAUMGARDNER R. ( 1987), "'Utilizing Pakistani Newspaper English to Teach Grammar'", World Englishes, 6: 241-52.

BUNGARTEN T. ( 1979), "'Das Korpus als empirische Grundlage in der Linguistik und Literaturwissenschaft'", in H. BERGENHOLTZ and B. SCHAEDER (eds.), Empirische Textwissenschaft: Aufbau und Auswertung von Textcorpora, 28-51 ( Königstein/T.: Sciptor).

BURCHFIELD R. ( 1994a), "'Introduction'", in Burchfield, 1-19.

----- ( 1994b) (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language, v. English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

CLEAR J. ( 1992), "'Corpus Sampling'", in Leitner, 21-31.

HUDSON-ETTLE D. and SCHMIED J. ( 1992), "'Deviation and Language Awareness in Kenyan Popular Literature'", in J. SCHMIED (ed.), English in East and Central Africa 2, Bayreuth African Studies Series, no. 24: 1-20 ( Bayreuth University).

JEFFERY C. ( 1993), "'Standards in South African English'", English Academy Review, 10: 14-25.

DE E. KADT ( 1993), "'Attitudes towards English in South Africa'", World Englishes, 12: 311-24.

LEECH G. ( 1992), "'Corpora and Theories of Linguistic Performance'", in Svartvik, 105-22.

LEITNER G. ( 1992a), "'The International Corpus of English: Corpus design--Problems and Suggested Solutions'", in Leitner, 33-64.

----- ( 1992b) (ed.), New Directions in English Language Corpora: Methodology, Results, Software Developments ( Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter).

MAIR C. ( 1992), "'Problems in the Compilation of a Corpus of Standard Caribbean English: A Pilot Study'", in Leitner, 75-96.

SCHMIED J. ( 1990), "'Language Use. Attitudes. Performance and Sociolinguistic Background: A Study of English in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia'", English World Wide, 11: 217-38.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 290

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.