Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview
5.
For a description of the ICE syntactic parsing scheme, see Chapter 11 in this volume.
6.
An ICE parsing unit roughly corresponds to the conventional notion of sentence, though there are cases where a parsing unit is only a syntactic phrase.
7.
We distinguish the sentence from the clause. A sentence consists of either one sentence or a number of co-ordinated sentences. In this treatment, clauses--whether finite or non- finite--are always subordinate.
8.
In comparison, Lumley ( 1933) noted an average rate of 1.8 words per second for politicians, 2.7 words per second for educators, 2.9 words per second for preachers, and 3.2 words per second for reporters (cf. Altenberg, 1987: 16). Altenberg ( 1987: 22) found an average of 2.4 words per second for the LLC Corpus.
9.
In Stenström, 1990, nearly half (48 per cent) of the clauses in spontaneous speech have initiating pauses, revealing the effect of the cognitive process of planning and selecting.
10.
The word be is grouped into various uses by the ICE tagging scheme. The four examples include be as the passive auxiliary ([1] and [4]) and the copula ([2] and [3]).

REFERENCES

ALTENBERG, B. ( 1987), Prosodic Patterns in Spoken English--Studies in the Correlation between Prosody and Grammar for Text-to-Speech Conversion (Lund: Lund University Press).

BEATTIE, G. ( 1983), Talk (Milton Keynes: Open University Press).

BRIDLE, J. S. and BROWN, M. D. ( 1979), 'Connected Word Recognition Using Whole Word Templates', in Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics Autumn Conference, Windermere, November 1979, 25-8 (St Albans: Institute of Acoustics).

BROTHERTON, P. ( 1979), 'Speaking and Not Speaking: Process for Translating Ideas into Speech', in Siegman and Feldstein, 179-209.

CHAFE, W. ( 1987), "'Cognitive Constraints on Information Flow'", in R. TOMLIN (ed.), 21-51.

CLEMENTS G. N. and KEYSER S. J. ( 1983), CV Phonology: A Generative Theory of the Syllable ( Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).

FOURCIN A. J. and ABBERTON E. ( 1971), 'First Applications of a New Laryngograph', Medical and Biological Illustration, 21: 172-82.

FOURCIN, A. J. and GIBBON, D. ( 1994), "'Spoken Language Assessment in the European Context'", Literary and Linguistic Computing, 9: 79-86.

GOLDMAN-EISLER F. ( 1972), "'Pauses, Clauses, Sentences'", Language and Speech, 15: 103- 13.

HOLMES J. N. ( 1980), "'The JSRU Vocoder'", in IEE Proceedings 127, Part F., No. 1 ( London: Institute for Electrical Engineers).

KLATT D. H. ( 1987), "'Review of Text-to-Speech Conversion for English'," Journal of the American Scientific Association, 82: 737-93.

KNOWLES G. ( 1993), "'From Text to Waveform: Converting the Lancaster/IBM Spoken English Corpus into a Speech Database'", in C. SOUTER and E. ATWELL (eds.), 47-58.

KNOWLES G. ( 1994), "'Annotating Large Speech Corpora: Building on the Experience of Marsec'", Journal of Linguistics, 13: 87-98.

KNOWLES, G. ( 1995), "'Recycling an Old Corpus: Converting the SEC into the MARSEC Database'", in G. N. G. MYERS LEECH, and J. A. THOMAS (eds.), 208-19.

-278-

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Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281
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