playing the game of Penelope's web, always weaving by day and unweaving by night: that is, in forever trying to capture the essence of an idea, a book, a figure of thought, just a little more precisely, we unweave what has been done before; but we must allow for the critics who follow to insist on their unweaving. Over the years I have accumulated the writings and (I trust) wisdom of many Erasmian scholars, and I feel that I must acknowledge that wisdom even as I respect it, make use of it for understanding the complexities of Erasmus, and try to incorporate it into the structure being built that is called Erasmus of Europe.

It is one of the unique characteristics of the humanities (as distinguished from the sciences) that we students of the studia humanitatis work with all that has been written in the past. Each idea has its own history, each published work its unique historical milieu, and we do not -- we cannot -- read in a vacuum or with only the present in view. We must remind our students and our readers that the past is a part of our responsibility as well as the present, and this always includes the history of the question at hand. Connexa sunt studia humanitatis, as Salutati rightly declared; that connecting includes our predecessors as well as our contemporaries, and it does not ignore our students and readers. Therefore there are also twentieth- century writers who are brought into the sphere of discussion, for I feel strongly the validity of T. S. Eliot's dictum that 'the whole of the literature of Europe from Homer and within it the whole of the literature of [one's] own country has a simultaneous existence and composes a simultaneous order'. 7 Erasmus would have understood and largely agreed with this formulation, for at nearly every step of his own writing career he related the literature of the past to the present and insisted upon the process by which the 'ideal order' of existing monuments is modified.

In addition to the debts and many courtesies acknowledged in Volume 1, I wish to express thanks to the following: Bibliothèque humaniste ( Sélestat), Bodleian Library ( Oxford), Stadtsbibliothek and Universitäts Bibliothek ( Trier), Universitäts Bibliothek ( Göttingen), Staatsbibliothek ( Berlin), Gemeentebibliotheek ( Rotterdam), Rijks- universiteitbibliotheek ( Gent), and the University of Kansas Library ( Lawrence). I also wish to thank the Rev. Marcus A. Haworth, SJ for permission to quote from his translations of a number of the later letters of Erasmus.

Finally, two personal acknowledgments need to be repeated, and both with greater warmth than in Volume 1: to Dr Ian D. L. Clark, to whose editing this volume like the first owes much, reminding one of Erasmus' praise of his co-editor and friend Beatus Rhenanus as

-xiii-

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Erasmus of Europe: - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Notes xiv
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • List of ILlustrations xvii
  • 18 Return from England: the Years in Flanders and Paris, 1501-1502 1
  • 19 the Early Louvain Years, 1502-1504 14
  • Notes 24
  • 20 the Enchiridion: 'Philosophia Christi' 28
  • Notes 40
  • 21 1504, a Threshold Year 41
  • Notes 49
  • 22 Return to England, 1505-1506 51
  • Notes 59
  • 23 Italy, 1506-1509 62
  • Notes 71
  • 24 the Adages 74
  • Notes 82
  • 25 England Again, 1509: the 'Period of Silence' 86
  • Notes 92
  • 25 the Praise of Folly 95
  • Notes 105
  • 27 the Cambridge Years, 1511-1514 109
  • Notes 122
  • 28 the Changing World in 1514 126
  • 29 Vocation and Life-Style 140
  • Notes 147
  • 30 to Basel, Summer 1514 149
  • Notes 161
  • 31 1516, the Annus Mirabilis 165
  • Notes 173
  • 32 the New Testament: A Life Work 175
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 210
  • 34 the Rising Storm of Controversy: Erasmus and His Catholic Critics, 1517-1522 216
  • Notes 231
  • 35 the Colloquies 236
  • Notes 243
  • Erasmus and His Friends: His Audience and His Geography 247
  • Notes 259
  • 37 Reform and Reformation: Ecclesia Semper Reformanda 263
  • Notes 278
  • 38 the Basel Years, 1521-1529: the Reformation Storm Rising 283
  • 39 Erasmus and Luther: on the Freedom of the Will 298
  • Notes 306
  • 40 Language and Style 310
  • Notes 317
  • 41 the Basel Years: Humanism and Religion 320
  • Notes 333
  • 42 the Freiburg Years, 1529-1535 337
  • Notes 346
  • 43 the Final Act at Basel: Summer 1535 to July 1536 350
  • Notes 359
  • 44 the Achievement of Erasmus and His Place in History 362
  • Notes 377
  • Appendix C Erasmus' Dispensations 381
  • Notes 383
  • Appendix D Erasmus' Wills 384
  • Notes 385
  • Appendix E Portraits of Erasmus 387
  • An Erasmian Chronology: LIfe and Writings 390
  • Bibliography 393
  • Index of Names of Persons 408
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