23
Italy, 1506-1509

Vidimus Ausoniae semieruta moenia Romae, hic, ubi cum sacris venditur ipse deus ...

Ulrich von Hutten, Epigrammata ex urbe missa ad Crotum Rubianum de stato Romano

Nouveau venu, qui cherches Rome en Rome Et rien de Rome en Rome n'apperçois, Ces vieux palais, ces vieux arcz que tu vois, Et ces vieux murs, c'est ce que Rome on nomme.

Joachim du Bellay, Les Antiquitez de Rome

Par tibi, Roma, nihil, cum sis prope tota ruina; Quam magni fueris integra fracta doces.

Hildebert of Lavardin (1055-1133), quoted by C. H. Haskins ( The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, 1927)

Throughout the western Middle Ages the Eternal City was thought of as the centre of the ancient world and the heart of Christendom. 1 Other northern humanists, together with artists and students in various fields, were moved to travel to Italy: Colet and others of the London-Oxford circle to study Greek, philosophy, and medicine; Copernicus to study canon law and, as an adjunct, astronomy; Dürer and others, painting; Martens, printing. Erasmus had come of age having as role models Agricola, even Hendrik van Bergen, and what must have seemed like so many others, who had studied in Italy. Their motives must have been diverse, and the reactions and returns varied greatly. Later, in a letter that is a defence of his life and work, Erasmus wrote to a compatriot from the Low Countries, Marcus Lauwerijns (Laurinus) in Epistle 809 that 'To Italy alone I have journeyed of my own free will, partly to pay at least one visit to her holy places, partly to profit from the libraries of that part of the world and make the acquaintance of its men of learning.' ( 5 April 1518, CWE 5:365/142-5; Allen III, 267/124-5.)

In August 1506 Erasmus and his group crossed the Alps, travelling through Savoy and by way of the Mont Cenis. On this journey

-62-

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Erasmus of Europe: - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Notes xiv
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • List of ILlustrations xvii
  • 18 Return from England: the Years in Flanders and Paris, 1501-1502 1
  • 19 the Early Louvain Years, 1502-1504 14
  • Notes 24
  • 20 the Enchiridion: 'Philosophia Christi' 28
  • Notes 40
  • 21 1504, a Threshold Year 41
  • Notes 49
  • 22 Return to England, 1505-1506 51
  • Notes 59
  • 23 Italy, 1506-1509 62
  • Notes 71
  • 24 the Adages 74
  • Notes 82
  • 25 England Again, 1509: the 'Period of Silence' 86
  • Notes 92
  • 25 the Praise of Folly 95
  • Notes 105
  • 27 the Cambridge Years, 1511-1514 109
  • Notes 122
  • 28 the Changing World in 1514 126
  • 29 Vocation and Life-Style 140
  • Notes 147
  • 30 to Basel, Summer 1514 149
  • Notes 161
  • 31 1516, the Annus Mirabilis 165
  • Notes 173
  • 32 the New Testament: A Life Work 175
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 210
  • 34 the Rising Storm of Controversy: Erasmus and His Catholic Critics, 1517-1522 216
  • Notes 231
  • 35 the Colloquies 236
  • Notes 243
  • Erasmus and His Friends: His Audience and His Geography 247
  • Notes 259
  • 37 Reform and Reformation: Ecclesia Semper Reformanda 263
  • Notes 278
  • 38 the Basel Years, 1521-1529: the Reformation Storm Rising 283
  • 39 Erasmus and Luther: on the Freedom of the Will 298
  • Notes 306
  • 40 Language and Style 310
  • Notes 317
  • 41 the Basel Years: Humanism and Religion 320
  • Notes 333
  • 42 the Freiburg Years, 1529-1535 337
  • Notes 346
  • 43 the Final Act at Basel: Summer 1535 to July 1536 350
  • Notes 359
  • 44 the Achievement of Erasmus and His Place in History 362
  • Notes 377
  • Appendix C Erasmus' Dispensations 381
  • Notes 383
  • Appendix D Erasmus' Wills 384
  • Notes 385
  • Appendix E Portraits of Erasmus 387
  • An Erasmian Chronology: LIfe and Writings 390
  • Bibliography 393
  • Index of Names of Persons 408
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