' Erasmus offers one of the finest examples of a "return to the sources" without taint of archaism: where what is newest ministers to a fresh and better understanding of what is oldest' (505).

The implications for his age of Erasmus' Novum Instrumentum -- in the several senses of the word instrumentum -- will be given attention in subsequent chapters.


Notes
1)
There is an admirable (and brief) essay for the general reader on the text of the New Testament in Jaroslav Pelikan The Melody of Theology, 245-8.
2)
For a general survey of the Biblical tradition, see The Cambridge History of the Bible: the West from the Fathers to the Reformation, ed. G. W.H. Lampe ( Cambridge, 1969), and its valuable bibliography (509-35).
3)
For many years I have been greatly in debt to Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages ( 1941; 2d ed., 1952, rptd 1964), and, rather less so, to C. Spicq, Esquisse d'une histoire de l'exégèse Latine au Moyen Âge ( Paris, 1944). A full study is given by Henri de Lubac, Exégèse Médiévale: Les quatre sens de l'écriture, 3 vols ( Paris, 1959); for a Catholic theological analysis, see Louis Bouyer, The Meaning of Sacred Scripture (Notre Dame, Ind., 1958).
4)
'Not even an ox might perish' ( Adag., IV. v. i, LB II, 1049A; see the trans. by Phillips in The 'Adages', 368-80).
5)
There is an admirable, well-documented survey by Jean Danielou, The Bible and the Liturgy (Notre Dame, Ind., 1956). For the late Middle Ages and Renaissance the standard work was the Rationale Divinorum Officiorum of Gulielmus Durandus (printed in Paris 1475, and much reprinted), the first book of which is translated into English as The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, by J. M. Neale and B. Webb ( London, 1906). See also M. D. Anderson , Drama and Imagery in British Churches ( Cambridge, 1963), and G. R. Owst, Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England, 2nd ed. ( Oxford, 1961).
6)
Smalley, Study of the Bible, xi.
7)
One must always bear in mind Smalley's caveat that 'the bulk of medieval commentaries remains in manuscript' (xii), and necessarily this includes commentaries from the Low Countries. A watershed is marked by Bainton's observation that in the age of the Renaissance and Reformation 'commentaries on the Sentences gave way to commentaries on the Bible' -- a partial truth: see 'Biblical Scholarship in the Renaissance and Reformation' rptd from Church History x ( 1941) in Bainton, Collected Papers in Church History, Ser. 1 ( Boston, 1962) 210-216.
8)
One must stress that the standard Gloss (Glossa ordinaria) of the high Middle Ages was a standard reference for both Roman Catholic and Anglican divines as late as the early 17th c.: 'the medieval Bible survived intact into the Counter-Reformation period' ( Smalley, 367).
9)
Jerry H. Bentley, Humanists and Holy Writ -- New Testament Scholarship in the Renaissance ( Princeton, 1983) 31.
10)
Writing his letter 'To a Monk' (c. 1519) Thomas More played with this proverbial saying: 'sicubi quis vel Carrensem {Hugo of St Cher} conuincat

-189-

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Erasmus of Europe: - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Notes xiv
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • List of ILlustrations xvii
  • 18 Return from England: the Years in Flanders and Paris, 1501-1502 1
  • 19 the Early Louvain Years, 1502-1504 14
  • Notes 24
  • 20 the Enchiridion: 'Philosophia Christi' 28
  • Notes 40
  • 21 1504, a Threshold Year 41
  • Notes 49
  • 22 Return to England, 1505-1506 51
  • Notes 59
  • 23 Italy, 1506-1509 62
  • Notes 71
  • 24 the Adages 74
  • Notes 82
  • 25 England Again, 1509: the 'Period of Silence' 86
  • Notes 92
  • 25 the Praise of Folly 95
  • Notes 105
  • 27 the Cambridge Years, 1511-1514 109
  • Notes 122
  • 28 the Changing World in 1514 126
  • 29 Vocation and Life-Style 140
  • Notes 147
  • 30 to Basel, Summer 1514 149
  • Notes 161
  • 31 1516, the Annus Mirabilis 165
  • Notes 173
  • 32 the New Testament: A Life Work 175
  • Notes 189
  • Notes 210
  • 34 the Rising Storm of Controversy: Erasmus and His Catholic Critics, 1517-1522 216
  • Notes 231
  • 35 the Colloquies 236
  • Notes 243
  • Erasmus and His Friends: His Audience and His Geography 247
  • Notes 259
  • 37 Reform and Reformation: Ecclesia Semper Reformanda 263
  • Notes 278
  • 38 the Basel Years, 1521-1529: the Reformation Storm Rising 283
  • 39 Erasmus and Luther: on the Freedom of the Will 298
  • Notes 306
  • 40 Language and Style 310
  • Notes 317
  • 41 the Basel Years: Humanism and Religion 320
  • Notes 333
  • 42 the Freiburg Years, 1529-1535 337
  • Notes 346
  • 43 the Final Act at Basel: Summer 1535 to July 1536 350
  • Notes 359
  • 44 the Achievement of Erasmus and His Place in History 362
  • Notes 377
  • Appendix C Erasmus' Dispensations 381
  • Notes 383
  • Appendix D Erasmus' Wills 384
  • Notes 385
  • Appendix E Portraits of Erasmus 387
  • An Erasmian Chronology: LIfe and Writings 390
  • Bibliography 393
  • Index of Names of Persons 408
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